Dr. Steven Allen Soper

School of Engineering - Chemistry, Mechanical Engineering
Foundation Distinguished Professor
Primary office:
785-864-3072
Multidisciplinary Research Building
Room 220C
University of Kansas, Lawrence Main Campus
1251 Wescoe Hall Dr.
Lawrence, KS 66045


Summary

1980 B.S. Psychology, University of Nebraska, Omaha; 1982 B.S. Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Omaha; 1989 Ph.D. Bioanalytical Chemistry, University of Kansas; 1989-1991 Post-Doctoral Fellow, Los Alamos National Laboratory; 1991-1996 Assistant Professor, Louisiana State University; 1992 R & D 100 Award, Single Molecule Detection Device; 1994 Shannon Award, National Institutes of Health (National Human Genome Research Institute); 1995 Whitaker Foundation Award, Whitaker Bioengineering Research Foundation; 1995 1996 Outstanding Researcher, College of Basic Sciences, Louisiana State University; 1997-2000 Associate Professor, 2001 Charles E. Coates Award for Outstanding Contributions to Chemical/Engineering Research in Louisiana, Louisiana State University; 2000 - 2011 Professor, Louisiana State University; 2002 - 2009 William L. & Patricia Senn, Jr. Professor of Chemistry; 2008 Distinguished Research Master, Louisiana State University (Top Research Award Offered by the University); 2008 Rainmaker - LSU Top 100 Researcher, Louisiana State University; 2009 Rainmaker - LSU Top 100 Researcher, Louisiana State University; 2010-2011 William H. Pryor Professor of Chemistry, Louisiana State University; 2010 - present Associate Editor of the Americas for Analyst; 2010 Fellow, Society for Applied Spectroscopy; 2010 Fellow, Royal Society of Chemistry; 2010 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science; 2011 American Chemical Society; Advances in Chemical Instrumentation; 2011 Professor Biomedical Engineering, UNC/NCSU; 2011 Professor Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; 2016 Distinguished Professor Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Education

Postdoctoral fellow under the direction of Dr. Richard A. Keller, Los Alamos National Laboratory

Ph.D., Bioanalytical Chemistry, University of Kansas

B.A., Chemistry, University of Nebraska at Omaha

B.S., Psychology, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Teaching

The teaching mission of a professor at a major research institution takes on many forms, such as instruction in a formal class setting and mentorship of future professionals (graduate/undergraduate students and post-doctoral associates). While both of these activities are equally important, I have devoted a large amount of my time toward graduate student mentorship as evidenced by the large research group I have sustained over a number of years (39 professional degrees granted). While I realize the importance of undergraduate training, both in the classroom and the research lab, I view graduate mentorship as a unique undertaking for a research professor. I have adopted a strategy to assist in the training of these students for competitively pursuing professional opportunities, whether in the private sector or academia, using a collaborative and multidisciplinary approach. My research group is organized into several teams, with each team focused on a particular project. For all of my projects, students are developing a particular component for the target application, with each student required to heavily interact and become familiar with activities of other members of the team. What is intriguing about this organizational structure is that they are not just interacting with their own research group members, but with students working in diverse disciplines whom are also integral parts of these teams.

To assist in forming effective collaborative efforts amongst students in a particular project team, we hold weekly team meetings. This has been an effective method for students to understand how their work fits into a large project and also, to learn how to interact with others in different disciplines and how to be a team player in multidisciplinary efforts. My feeling is that these experiences prepare them well for their post-graduate work. In addition, I have found that the students become more independent and seek out assistance not only from myself, but their peers and other professors. The post-doctoral associates I support are intimately involved in this activity as well. They typically organize these meetings and select the agenda with input from other team members. This creates an atmosphere of the team members "owning" the project and therefore, become more responsible towards its completion.

Recently, I have become innately aware of the importance of global research as well through my appointment as a World Class Scholar and adjunct professor in South Korea at Ulsan National Institutes of Science and Technology, UNIST. As a result, I have provided to my students unique opportunities to go abroad for sustained periods of time to carry out research. For example, as part of my appointment at UNIST, I have had my graduate students participating in research programs there. In addition, several of my students have received fellowships from NSF to participate in summer research in Korea. This has been a reciprocal arrangement, with students from Korea visiting my laboratories in the US. For example, in the summer of 2012, 3 South Korean students were in my lab and a professor as well.

I have also been involved in undergraduate research and not just through summer research programs, such as REU programs. Over my years at LSU and UNC, I have had many undergraduates whom have joined my research group as freshmen and have stayed within the group during their entire tenure at LSU (new ones at UNC have just started). Three of these students have/are participated in graduate programs in Chemistry (Christie Sayes, Rice University; Sarah Romero, Delaware University and Jason Brabham, Texas A&M University). These undergraduate students are integrated into the research teams outlined above and actively participate in team meetings and have the opportunity to publish peer-reviewed papers and present their work at national/international meetings.

In formal class settings, I have been involved with 11 different courses while at LSU and one at UNC (Biofluid Mechanics) both at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Due to the number of different courses that I have been associated with, a large amount of effort was devoted to developing class notes and general restructuring of the course content. For example, CHEM 2001, the LSU sophomore-level quantitative analysis course, was a new course that was initiated in the fall of 1992. I assisted in developing the curriculum for this course and selecting the textbook. In the spring of 1994, a comprehensive separations class was formulated for graduate-level students. This course offers a complete overview of analytical chromatographic techniques and covers fundamental concepts, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and specialty areas such as capillary electrophoresis, affinity chromatography and chiral separations. Again, I was intimately involved in developing the content for this course and I am still teaching this course on a regular basis. The new Biofluid Mechanics course at UNC was formulated by myself in the fall of 2012 and was retaught in the fall of 2013.

I have also been engaged in teaching in South Korea as well as part of my duties as a World Class University professor. For two semesters, I taught a class in Bioanalysis and did so from a biology, chemistry and engineering perspective. This was a necessity given that my appointment in Korea was in the Department of Nanobioscience and Chemical Engineering. In the spring of 2013, I taught an undergraduate class (66 students) focused on Biofluid Mechanics and a graduate class in Nanotechnology.

I have also initiated some Professional Development workshops on writing resumes, giving formal presentations and how to participate in an effective interview. I have prepared lectures in each of these areas and have continued to give these lectures at various times over the last 8 years. For example, I gave a formal seminar to the Department of Biomedical Engineering and the Department of Chemistry in 2013 on giving memorable technical presentations. I have also given professional development seminars at LSU, Ulsan National Institute of Science & Technology in Korea and UNC as well.

Another passion I have generated is in the area of entrepreneurship and instructing students on the process of submitting disclosures, writing patents and forming startup companies. I hold informal lectures on the IP process and balancing academic with commercialization ventures. I also discuss with students writing business plans and how to give talks to potential investors as well.

During my first few years at LSU, my teaching duties were specifically oriented toward revamping much of the analytical laboratory courses, which had not experienced a change in over 15 years. My efforts were primarily directed toward both the quantitative analysis course (sophomore-level) and the senior instrumental analysis laboratory. In fact, most of my contributions to the LSU teaching program came from the restructuring of these laboratories. Not only did I design and troubleshoot new laboratories, but diligently sought out new instruments for these teaching laboratories in order to expose students to state-of-the-art analysis in analytical chemistry. Many times this meant going to local industry to secure appropriate equipment that could easily be assimilated into the laboratory.

My ratings in various classes have been consistently higher than the College and Department instructor average. My philosophy for upper level graduate courses is to present the student with a large amount of information due to the expected maturity level of the student and the extensive experience the student should have at this level of his/her career in education. I have also been diligently engaging these students in giving formal presentations by doing in-class talks on selected topical areas.

Research

The major focus of our group is to generate new tools for discovery and medical diagnostics through the analysis of biological macromolecules including DNAs, RNAs and proteins. These tools cover a diverse range of activities, such as the generation of new reagents, novel assays and methodologies, and hardware innovations across various length scales (millimeter to nanometer). What is particularly compelling with our major research goal is that these tools are being integrated into operating systems that can be used for a variety of applications, such as the diagnosis and prognosis of many forms of cancers, stroke and infectious diseases. In order to build systems specifically designed for macro-molecular analyses, our research spans many sub-areas, such as polymer-based micro- and nanomachining, fluorescent probe development, construction of ultrasensitive detection apparati and nano-biology (performing molecular biological reactions in ultra-small volumes). In addition, we are currently working with collaborators in several areas, such as mechanical engineering, molecular biology, surface science, materials, organic chemistry and mass spectrometry. Provided below is a short description of a few of our many projects. To facilitate these multi-disciplinary efforts, our group is part of the Center for BioModular Multi-Scale Systems, which is a multi-institutional research center with access to state-of-the-art equipment and expertise in many disciplines in the sciences and engineering as well.

In the area of reagent development, we have been working on the generation of new instruments that utilize fluorescence-based single-molecule detection. Because the ability to detect single fluorescent molecules depends on low levels of background and fluorescent reporters with high extinction coefficients, quantum yields and favorable photochemical stability, we have synthesized new water-soluble metal phthalocyanines that absorb and emit radiation in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Studies are being pursued to understand the photophysical behavior of these metal phthalocyanines, such as why the fluorescent properties of these dyes are highly dependent on the identity of the metal center. The phthalocyanines are being used for labeling oligonucleotides employed to recognize unique reporter sequences within nucleic acid biomarkers to transduce the presence of these markers in real clinical samples.

Novel assays are being developed to facilitate the near real-time reporting of biomarkers unique to a particular disease type. For example, one of our projects is focused on designing and building a Point-of-Care molecular diagnostic test for stroke, which is currently unavailable. We are using fluorescence single-molecule detection to determine the presence of certain messenger RNAs in whole blood that are highly expressed when a patient experiences brain tissue damage. Following isolation of the total RNA from a particular class of cells found in whole blood, the messenger RNAs are subjected to a ligation-based reaction, which allows the formation of so-called molecular beacons. These molecular beacons contain a pair of fluorescent molecules, such as the phthalocyaines described above, and following their formation, allow the dye-pair to undergo a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process that generates a unique color signature only if the target messenger RNA is present. We are also developing new assays for collecting tumor cells from circulation, analyzing point mutations in the DNA of these tumor cells and looking at the membrane protein composition of tumor cells that have been shed into circulation and can spawn metastatic disease.

Finally, our hardware developments are primarily focused on designing, fabricating and evaluating microfluidic and nanofluidic chips for cellular and molecular analyses. While many research groups worldwide are engaged in developing lab-on-a-chip systems for biomedical applications, our approach is unique in that conventional polymers, such as Plexiglas and polycarbonate, are being used as the substrate. We are using a variety of new tools to build the prerequisite chips that consist of fluidic channels, which range in size from 10 nm up to 100 µm in size. These tools include hot embossing, optical lithography, laser machining, focused ion beam milling, electron beam lithography, and an assortment of metrology tools (scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning profilometry, ATR-FTIR, X-ray photoelectron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to name a few). The interesting aspect of these chips is that a plethora of surface modification protocols are undertaken on the polymer chips to allow the attachment of biological entities to their surfaces. For example, UV expose of many polymer surfaces creates a functional scaffold composed of carboxylic acids that can be used to covalently attach recognition elements, such as antibodies, directly to their surfaces. These strategies are being employed to generate systems appropriate for the immuno-selection of circulating tumor cells from whole blood for diagnosing a variety of cancers. We are now employing nanofabrication techniques to generate structures in polymer substrates that have dimensions on the order of 10 nm to allow the identification of single-molecules through their unique transport behavior through these nano-confined environments.

Research Interests

  • Development of micro-/nanofabricated biochemical analysis systems for clinical diagnostic applications including the analysis of circulating tumor cells and cell free DNA
  • Novel fabrication methods for personalized medicine
  • Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy
  • Dye photophysics and photochemistry
  • Bioanalytical applications of near infrared fluorescence
  • Development of novel detection schemes for DNA and protein analysis
  • Ultra-high throughput screening for drug discovery
  • Global research and educational experiences for both graduate and undergraduate students
  • Mentoring new faculty on writing successful grants and research papers
  • Producing novel strategies for multidisciplinary research opportunities.

Selected Publications

Lee, T. Y., Han, K. Barrett, D. Park, S. Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. (2018). Accurate, Predictable, Repeatable Micro-Assembly Technology for Polymer, Microfluidic Modules. Sens. Actuators, B, 254, 1249-1258.

Soper, S. A., Kamande, J. Lindell, M. Witek, M. & Voorhees, P. (2018). Isolation of Circulating Plasma Cells from Blood of Patients Diagnosed with Clonal Plasma Cell Disorder using Cell Selection Microfluidics. Integr. Biol.

Adamski, M. Li, Y. Wagner, E. Seales-Bailey, C. Bennett, N. Yu, H. Murphy, M. Soper, S. A., & Baird, A. (2017). CD15+ Granulocyte and CD8+ T Lymphocyte Based Gene Expression Clusters for Ischemic Stroke Detection. Medical Research Archives, 5.

Witek, M. A., Aufforth, R. D., Wang, H. Kamande, J. W., Jackson, J. M., Pullagurla, S. R., Hupert, M. L., Usary, J. Wysham, W. Z., Hilliard, D. Montgomery, S. Bae-Jump, V. Carey, L. A., Gehrig, P. A., Milowsky, M. I., Perou, C. M., Soper, J. T., Whang, Y. E., Yeh, J. Martin, G. & Soper, S. A. (2017). Discrete microfluidics for the isolation of circulating tumor cell subpopulations targeting fibroblast activation protein alpha and epithelial cell adhesion molecule. Nature Journal of Precision Oncology, 1(24), 1-11.

Jackson, J. M., Witek, M. Kamade, J. & Soper, S. A. (2017). Materials and Microfluidics: Enabling the Efficient Isolation and Analysis of Circulating Tumour Cells. Chem. Soc. Rev., 46, 4245-4280.

Im, H. Lee, S. Soper, S. A., & Mitchell, R. J. (2017). Staphylococcus aureus Extracellular Vesicles (EVs): Surface-Binding Antagonists of Biofilm Formation. Molecular BioSystems, 13, 2704-2714.

Weerakoon-Ratnayake, K. OΓÇÖNeil, C. E., Uba, F. I., & Soper, S. A. (2017). Thermoplastic Nanofluidic Devices for Biomedical Applications. Lab on a Chip, 17, 362-381.

Soper, S. A., & Rasooly, A. (2016). Cancer: a global concern that demands new detection technologies. Analyst, 141, 367-370.

OΓÇÖNeil, C. E., Taylor, S. Ratnayake, K. Pullagurla, S. Singh, V. & Soper, S. A. (2016). Characterization of Activated Cyclic Olefin Copolymer: Effects of Ethylene/Norbornene Content on the Physiochemical Properties. Analyst , 141, 6521-6532.

ONeil, C. E., Jackson, J. M., Shim, S. H., & Soper, S. A. (2016). Characterizing Surface Functional Group Density for O2 Plasma and UV/O3 Activated Thermoplastics using Superresolution Microscopy. Analytical Chemistry, 88, 3686-3696.

Jackson, J. M., Taylor, J. Hunsucker, S. A., Armistead, P. A., & Soper, S. A. (2016). Detection of Minimum Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia using Integrated Microfluidic Systems. Analyst, 141, 640-651.

Kaufman, D. Chastain, P. & Soper, S. A. (2016). Digital Determination of Chemotherapeutic Drug-Induced Damage Sites in Single DNA Molecules. The FASEB Journal, 30, 51.8.

Weerakoon-Ratnayake, K. M., Uba, F. I., Oliver-Calixte, N. J., & Soper, S. A. (2016). Electrophoretic Separation of Single Particles using Nanoscale Thermoplastic Columns. Analytical Chemistry, 88, 3569-3577.

Wysham, W. Witek, M. Soper, S. A., Gehrigh, P. Stine, J. & Bae-Jump, V. (2016). Improved Clinical Sensitivity Detection of Circulating Tumor Cell Assays using a Dual Selection Strategy in Women with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Gynecologic Oncology, 141, 138-139.

Soper, S. A. & Rasooly, A. (Eds.). (2016). Themed Issue in Analyst: Innovative Tools for Cancer Screening, Detection and Diagnostics. Analyst, 141.

Nair, S. Jackson, J. Witek, M. & Soper, S. A. (2015). Capture and Enzymatic Release of Circulating Tumor Cells. Chemical Communications, 51, 3266-3269.

Pullaguria, S. Baird, A. & Soper, S. A. (2015). Current and Future Bioanalytical Approaches to Stroke Assessment. Bioanalysis, 7, 1017-1035.

Uba, F. I., Hu, B. Weerakoon-Ratnayake, K. Oliver-Calixte, N. & Soper, S. A. (2015). High Process Yield Rates of Thermoplastic Nanofluidic Devices using a Hybrid Thermal Assembly Technique. LOC, 15, 1038-1049.

Uba, F. I., Pullaguria, S. R., Sirasunthorn, N. Wu, J. Park, S. Chantiwas, R. Cho, Y. Shin, H. & Soper, S. A. (2015). Investigation of surface charge and electroosmostic flow in polymer nanoslits and nanochannels. Analyst, 140, 113-126.

Baird, A. E., Soper, S. A., Pullaguria, S. & Adamski, M. (2015). Recent and Near-Future Advances in Nucleic Acid-based Diagnosis of Stroke. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, 5, 665-679.

Trophy, R. J., Tignanelli, C. J., Kamande, J. W., Moffitt, R. A., Herrera Loeza, S. G., Soper, S. A., & Yen, J. J. (2014). Circulating tumor cells as a biomarker of response to treatment in patient-derived xenograft mouse models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PLOS ONE, 9, e89474.

Jackson, J. M., Hupert, M. L., & Soper, S. A. (2014). Discrete geometry optimization for reducing flow non-uniformity, asymmetry and parasitic minor loss pressure drops in Z-type configurations of fuel cells. J. Power Sources, 269, 274-283.

Adamski, M. Li, Y. Wagner, E. Yu, H. Seales-Bailey, C. Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. & Baird, A. E. (2014). Expression Profile-based Gene Clusters for Ischemic Stroke Detection. Genomics, 104, 163-169.

Oliver-Calixte, N. J., Uba, F. I., Battle, K. N., Ratnayake, K. W., & Soper, S. A. (2014). Immobilization of lambda exonuclease onto polymer micropillar arrays for the solid- phase digestion of dsDNAs. Anal. Chem, 86, 4447-4454.

Kim, N. Murphy, M. C., Soper, S. A., & Nikitopoulos, D. E. (2014). Liquid-liquid segmented flows in polycarbonate microchannels with cross-sectional expansions. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 58, 83-86.

Battle, K. N., Uba, F. I., & Soper, S. A. (2014). Microfluidics for the analysis of membrane proteins: How do we get there? Electrophoresis, 35, 2253-2266.

Mateusz, A. G., Yan, L. E., Wagner, E. Seales-Bailey, C. Yu, H. Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Baird, A. E. (2014). Next generation qPCR and validation of stroke-related whole blood gene expression. Annals of Neurology, 74, S16.

Pullaguria, S. R., Witek, M. A., Jackson, J. M., Lindell, M. M., Hupert, M. L., Nesterova, I. V., Baird, A. E., & Soper, S. A. (2014). Parallel affinity-based isolation of leukocyte subsets using microfluidics: Applications for stroke diagnosis. Anal. Chem, 86, 4058-4065.

Battle, K. Jackson, J. M., & Soper, S. A. (2014). Solid-phase extraction and purification of membrane proteins using a UV-modified PMMA microfluidic Bioaffinity ┬╡SPE device. Analyst, 139, 1355-1363.

Jackson, J. M., Witek, M. A., Hupert, M. L., Brady, C. Yeh, J. J., & Soper, S. A. (2014). UV modification of polymeric high aspect ratio microstructures: Ramifications in antibody surface loading for circulating tumor cell selection. Lab Chip, 14, 106-117.

Hupert, M. L., Jackson, J. M., Wang, H. Witek, M. A., Kamande, J. Millowsky, M. I., Whang, Y. E., & Soper, S. A. (2013). Arrays of high-aspect ratio microchannels for high-throughput isolation of circulating tumor cells. Microsyst. Technol. DOI:10.1007/s00542-013-1941-6

Trophy, R. J., Tignanelli, C. J., Moffitt, R. A., Soper, S. A., & Yeh, J. J. (2013). Circulating tumor cells as a biomarker of response to treatment in patient derived xenograft mouse models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J. Am. College Surgeons, 217, S30.

Aufforth, R. D., Baker, J. J., Witek, M. A., Kamande, J. W., Kim, H. J., Kuan, P. Soper, S. A., & Yeh, J. J. (2013). Circulating tumor cells as a possible marker for micrometastatic disease in patients with localized pancreatic cancer. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 20, S129.

Novak, B. Moldovan, D. Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Soper, S. A. (2013). Distinguishing single DNA nucleotides based on their times of flight through nanoslits: A molecular dynamics simulation study. J. Phys. Chem. B, 117, 3271-3279.

Chen, H. W., Wang, H. Hupert, M. & Soper, S. A. (2013). Identification of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using an integrated and modular microfluidic system. Analyst, 138, 1075-1083.

Rani, S. D., You, B. -., Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Nikitopoulos, D. E. (2013). Influence of material transition and interfacial area changes on flow and concentration in electro-osmosis flows. Anal. Chimica Acta, 770, 103-110.

Zhang, X. Zu, S. Lee, Y. I., & Soper, S. A. (2013). LED-induced in-column molecular imprinting for solid phase extraction/capillary electrophoresis. Analyst, 138, 2821-2824.

Rani, S. D., Park, T. You, B. H., Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Nikitopoulos, D. E. (2013). Modeling of misalignment effects in microfluidic interconnects for modular bio-analytical chip applications. Electrophoresis, 34, 2988-2995.

Kamande, J. Wang, H. Yeh, J. J., Hupert, M. L., & Soper, S. A. (2013). Modular microfluidic system for the high throughput selection, enumeration and phenotyping of circulating tumor cells. Anal. Chem, 85, 9092-9100.

Subramanian, B. Mayer, K. M., Lee, S. Soper, S. A., Hafner, J. H., & Spivak, D. A. (2013). Nanostructure shape effects on response of plasmonic aptamer sensors. J. Molc. Recogn, 26, 402-407.

Adamski, M. Li, Y. Wagner, E. Yu, H. Seales-Bailey, C. Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Baird, A. (2013). Next generation qPCR for the high throughput measurement of gene expression in multiple leukocyte subsets. J. Biomolecular Screening, 18, 1008-1017.

Brecht, J. Kotani, A. Lin, J. Soper, S. A., & Barron, A. E. (2013). Simultaneous detection of 10 K-ras mutations by free-solution conjugate electrophoresis of ligase detection reaction products on glass microchips. Electrophoresis, 34, 590-597.

Peng, Z. Y., Young, B. Baird, A. E., & Soper, S. A. (2013). Single-molecule FRET: An approach for quantitative expression profiling of low copy number transcripts in near real-time. Anal. Chem, 85, 7851-7858.

Mateusz, A. G., Wagner, E. Li, Y. Yu, H. Soper, S. A., & Baird, A. E. (2013). The expression of individual genes in acute stroke differs across leukocyte subsets. Annals of Neurology, 72, S1.

Canfield, B. K., King, J. K., Robinson, W. N., Hofmeister, W. H., Soper, S. A., & Davis, L. M. (2012). Ultrasensitive fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of highly parallelized microfluidic devices. In SPIE Proceedings 2012 (DOI: 10.1117/12.909515).

Wu, J. Shao, G. Choi, J. Uba, F. I., Soper, S. A., & Park, S. (2012). Uncoil long DNA molecules by nanoposts array. In Technical Proceedings of the 2012 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2012: 380-383.

Emory, J. M., Peng, Z. Y., Young, B. Hupert, M. L., Rousselet, A. Patterson, D. Ellison, B. & Soper, S. A. (2012). Design and development of a field-deployable single-molecule detector (SMD) for the analysis of molecular markers. Analyst, 137, 87-97.

Kotani, A. Witek, M. A., Osiri, J. K., Wang, H. Sinville, R. Pincas, H. Barany, F. & Soper, S. A. (2012). EndoV/DNA ligase mutation scanning assay using microchip capillary electrophoresis and dual-color laser-induced fluorescence detection. Anal. Methods, 4, 58-64.

Hollins, B. C., Soper, S. A., & Feng, J. (2012). Enriching carbonylated proteins inside a microchip through the use of oxalyldihydrazide as a crosslinker. Lab on a Chip, 12, 2526-2532.

Wang, H. Chen, H. W., Hupert, M. L., Chen, P. C., Datta, P. Pittman, T. L., Goettert, J. Murphy, M. C., Williams, D. Barany, F. & Soper, S. A. (2012). Fully Integrated Thermoplastic Genosensor for the Highly Sensitive Detection and Identification of Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Angewandte Chemie, Int. Ed, 51, 4349-4353.

Nesterova, I. V., Hupert, M. L., Witek, W. A., & Soper, S. A. (2012). Hydrodynamic shearing of DNA in a polymeric microfluidic device. Lab Chip, 12, 1044-1047.

Chen, H. W., Wang, H. Hupert, M. & Soper, S. A. (2012). Modular Microfluidic System Fabricated in Thermoplastics for the Strain-Specific Detection of Bacterial Pathogens. Lab Chip, 12, 3348-3355.

Wang, S. Y., Njoroge, S. K., Battle, K. Zhang, C. Hollins, B. C., Soper, S. A., & Feng, J. (2012). Two-dimensional nitrosylated protein fingerprinting by using poly (methyl methacrylate) microchips. Lab Chip, 12, 3362-3369.

Xia, H. Murray, K. K., Soper, S. A., & Feng, J. (2012). Ultra-sensitive affinity chromatography on avidin-functionalized PMMA microchip for low abundant post-translational modified protein enrichment. Biomed. Microdev, 14, 67-81.

Njoroge, S. K., Chen, H. Witek, M. & Soper, S. A. (2011). Integrated Microfluidic Systems for DNA Analysis. In . (Ed.), Topics in Current Chemistry: Microfluidics: Technologies and Applications (pp. 203-260). Springer.

Osiri, J. K., Shadpour, H. Witek, M. & Soper, S. A. (2011). Integrated Multifunctional Microsystems for Automated Proteome Analysis. In . (Ed.), Topics in Current Chemistry: Microfluidics: Technologies and Applications (pp. 261-294). Springer.

Jackson, J. M., Witek, M. & Soper, S. A. (2011). Sinusoidal Microfluidic Chips for the Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells. In . (Ed.), Circulating Tumor Cells: Isolation and Analysis, Chapter 4. John Wiley and Sons.

Wu, J. Wang, H. Kim, J. Murphy, F. Soper, S. A., & Park, S. (2011). Influence of nanochannel inlet structure upon DNA capture ratio. In ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2011, 11: 643-645.

Han, K. Lee, T. Y., Murphy, M. C., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Batzer, M. A. (2011). A vertically-stacked, polymer, microfluidic PCR/ExoSAP-IT®/LDR analyzer: High accuracy detection of low-abundance K-ras point mutations. Anal. Biochem, 417, 211-219.

Wu, J. Chantiwas, R. Amirsadeghi, A. Soper, S. A., & Park, S. (2011). Complete plastic nanofluidic devices for DNA analysis via direct imprinting with polymer stamps. Lab on a Chip, 11, 2984-2989.

Chantiwas, R. Park, S. Soper, S. A., Kim, B. L., Takayama, S. Sunkara, V. Hwang, H. & Cho, Y. K. (2011). Flexible Fabrication and Applications of Polymer Nanochannels and Nanoslits,. Chem. Soc. Rev, 40, 3677-3702.

Kim, N. Evans, E. Park, D. Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Nikitopoulos, D. (2011). Gas-liquid Two-phase Flows in Rectangular polymer microchannels. Exp. Fluids, 51, 373-393.

Dharmasiri, U. & Soper, S. A. (2011). High-throughput Selection, Enumeration, Electrokinetic Manipulation, and Molecular Profiling of Low-Abundance Circulating Tumor Cells. Anal. Chem, 83, 2301-2309.

Njoroge, S. Witek, M. & Soper, S. A. (2011). Integrated Modular Microfluidic System with CFPCR and Affinity Purification of the Resulting Products. Electrophoresis, 32, 3221-3232.

Nesterova, I. V., Bennett, C. A., Erdem, S. S., Hammer, R. P., Deininger, P. L., & Soper, S. A. (2011). Near-IR Single Fluorophore Quenching System Based on Phthalocyanine Aggregation and its Application for High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assays. Analyst, 136, 1103-1105.

Sunkara, V. Park, D. A., Hwang, H. Chantiwas, R. Soper, S. A., & Cho, Y. K. (2011). Simple and Instantaneous Room Temperature Bonding of Thermoplastics and Poly(dimethyl siloxane). Lab Chip, 11, 962-965.

Lee, J. Soper, S. A., & Murray, K. K. (2011). Solid-Phase Bioreactor with Continuous Sample Deposition for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Rap. Comm. Mass Spectrometry, 25, 693-699.

Balamurugan, S. Kim, N. Lee, W. Spivak, D. A., Nikitopoulos, D. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2011). Surface Modification of Droplet Polymeric Microfluidic Devices for the Stable and Continuous Generation of Aqueous Droplets. Langmuir, 27, 7949-7957.

Chen, P. -., Park, D. S., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2010). A high throughput microfluidic thermal reactor. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2: 273-275.

Fan, Z. H., Mei, Q. & Soper, S. A. (2010). Microfluidic reactors for bioluminescence detection. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings.ΓÇë12 (PART B):773-778.

Wu, J. Chantiwas, R. Soper, S. A., & Park, S. (2010). Nanofluidic channel based single molecular sensors in polymer substrate fabricated by novel nanoimprinting processes. In Nanotechnology 2010: Electronics, Devices, Fabrication, MEMS, Fluidics and Computational - Technical Proceedings of the 2010 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2010; 2: 468-471.

Guzman, D. Macalindong, J. Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2010). Assessment of Glycoprotein Interactions with 4-[(2-aminoethyl)carbamoyl]phenylboronic Acid Surfaces using Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy. Anal. Chem, 82, 8970-8977.

Lee, W. Lee, Y. -., Lee, J. Davis, L. M., Deininger, P. & Soper, S. A. (2010). Cross-Talk Free Dual-Color Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCCS) for the Study of Enzyme Activity. Anal. Chem, 82, 1401-1410.

Dharmasiri, U. Witek, M. A., Adams, A. A., Osiri, J. K., Hupert, M. L., Bianchi, T. S., Roelke, D. L., & Soper, S. A. (2010). Enrichment and Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Water Samples Using an Antibody Modified Microfluidic Chip. Anal. Chem, 82, 2844-2849.

Lee, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. J. (2010). Fabrication and Mathematical Analysis of an Electrochemical Microactuator (ECM) Using Electrodes Coated with Platinum Nano-particles. Microsystem Technologies-Micro-and Nanosystems-Information Storage and Processing Systems, 16, 381-390.

Okagbare, P. I., Emory, J. M., Datta, P. Goettert, J. & Soper, S. A. (2010). Fabrication of a Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Waveguide for Evanescence Excitation. Lab Chip, 10, 66-73.

Pang, Z. & Soper, S. A. (2010). Ligase Detection Reaction Generation of Molecular Beacons for the Real-Time Analysis of Bacterial Pathogens using Single-Pair FRET. Anal. Chem, 82, 9727-9735.

Njoroge, S. K., Witek, M. K., Hupert, M. L., & Soper, S. A. (2010). Microchip Electrophoresis of Alu Elements for Gender Determination and Inference of Human Ethnic Origin. Electrophoresis, 31, 981-990.

Dharmasiri, U. Adams, A. A., Witek, M. & Soper, S. A. (2010). Microsystems for the Capture of Low Abundant Cells. Annual Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 3, 409-431.

Okagbare, P. I., & Soper, S. A. (2010). Polymer-based Dense Fluidic Network for High Throughput Screening with Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection. Electrophoresis, 31, 3074-3082.

Chantiwas, R. Hupert, M. Park, S. Datta, P. Goettert, J. Cho, Y. -., & Soper, S. A. (2010). Simple Fabrication Methods for Producing 1D Nanoslits in Thermoplastics and the Transport Dynamics of Double-Stranded DNA through these Slits. Lab on a Chip, 10, 3255-3264.

Lee, W. Obubuafo, A. Lee, Y. & Soper, S. A. (2010). Single-Pair Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) for the High Sensitivity Analysis of Low Abundant Proteins using Apatamers as Molecular Recognition Elements. J. Fluoresc, 20, 203-213.

Li, Z. He, Q. Ma, D. Chen, H. W., & Soper, S. A. (2010). Thermoswitchable Electrokinetic Ion-Enrichment/Elution Based on a Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide Hydrogel Plug in a Microchannel. Anal. Chem, 82, 10030-10036.

Park, D. Chen, P. -., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Lee, T. Y., Datta, P. Desta, Y. Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2010). Titer-plate Formatted Continuous Flow Thermal Reactors for High Throughput Applications. J. Micromech. Microeng, 20, 055003.

Chen, P. C., Park, D. S., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2010). Titer-plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors: Design and performance of a nanoliter reactor. Sens. Act. B, 149, 291-300.

Osiri, J. Shadpour, H. & Soper, S. A. (2010). Ultra-fast Two-Dimensional Microchip Electrophoresis using SDS-PAGE and Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography for Protein Profiling. Anal. Bioanal. Chem, 398, 489-498.

Chen, P. -., Park, D. S., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2009). A disposable high throughput micro-fluidic thermal reactor. In Proceedings of the 13th International conference on Miniaturized System for Chemistry and Life sciences, Jeju, Republic of Korea, Oct. 1-5.

Chen, P. -., Park, D. S., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2009). A high throughput microfluidic thermal reactor. In The 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE), Lake Buena Vista, FL, Nov. 13-19.

Lee, T. Y., Han, K. Park, D. S., Soper, S. A., Batzer, M. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2009). A multi-function, microfluidic module for mutation detection. In TRANSDUCERS 2009 - 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,ΓÇë2009:120-123.

Park, D. S., Singh, V. You, B. H., Kim, N. Chen, P. -., Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Goettert, J. & Murphy, M. C. (2009). Control of internal stress for high quality nickel large area mold inserts. In The 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE), Lake Buena Vista, FL, Nov. 13-19.

Kim, N. Murphy, M. C., Soper, S. A., & Nikitopoulos, D. E. (2009). Liquid-liquid segmented flows in polymer microfluidic channels. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, ICNMM2009 (PART B):1155- 1165.

Soper, S. A., McCarley, R. L., Park, S. & Nikitopoulos, D. E. (2009). Polymer-based Micro-and Nanofluidic Chips. Simple Strategies for Their Surfaces Modifications to Accommodate Applications in Biology. In Proceedings of the Materials Research Symposium.

Chen, P. -., Wang, H. Park, D. S., Park, S. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2009). Protein adsorption in a continuous flow microchannel environment. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings.ΓÇë2009; 2: 249- 253.

Chantiwas, R. Hupert, M. L., Lopez, J. T., Datta, P. Goettert, J. Novak, B. Moldovan, D. Jha, S. Park, S. Murphy, M. C., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Soper, S. A. (2009). Transport of Single Molecules Through Nanochannels: A Novel Approach to DNA Sequencing. In Proceedings of the MicroTas Conference.

Lee, J. Soper, S. A., & Murray, K. K. (2009). Development of an Efficient On-Chip Digestion System for Protein Analysis Using MALDI-TOF MS. Analyst, 134, 2426-2433.

Obubuafo, A. Balamurugan, S. Dharmasiri, U. Spivak, D. A., & Soper, S. A. (2009). Effect of Linker Structure on Surface Density of Aptamer Monolayers and Their Corresponding Protein Binding Efficiency. Analyst, 80, 9630-9634.

Okagbare, P. & Soper, S. A. (2009). High Throughput Single Molecule Detection and Monitoring of Biochemical Interactions using Single Molecule Energy Transfer. Analyst, 134, 97-106.

Dharmasiri, U. Balamurugan, S. McCarley, R. L., Spivak, D. & Soper, S. A. (2009). Highly Efficient Capture and Enumeration of Low Abundance Prostate Cancer Cells Using Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Aptamers Immobilized to a Polymeric Microfluidic Device. Electrophoresis, 30, 3289-3300.

Lee, J. Soper, S. A., & Murray, K. K. (2009). Microfluidics with MALDI-MS Analysis for Proteomics. Anal. Chim. Acta, 649, 180-190.

Erdem, S. S., Nesterova, I. V., Soper, S. A., & Hammer, R. P. (2009). Mono-Amine Functionalized Phthalocyanines: Microwave-Assisted Solid-Phase Synthesis and Bioconjugation Strategies. J. Org. Chem, 74, 9280-9286.

You, B. -., Chen, P. -., Park, D. S., Park, S. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2009). Passive Micro-assembly of Modular, Hot Embossed Polymer Microfluidic Devices Using Exact Constraint Design. J. Micromech. Microeng, 19, 1-11.

Nesterova, I. Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (2009). Phthalocyanine Dimerization-based Molecular Beacons Using Near-IR Fluorescence. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 131, 2432-2433.

Emory, J. M., Peng, Z. Crawford-Drake, F. Chen, P. C., Murphy, M. & Soper, S. A. (2008). A Compact Microfluidic System With An Integrated Optical System for Single-Molecule Detection Via Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer for Real-Time Molecular Analyses. In L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, B. M. Paegel, D. J. Ross, & W. N. Vreeland (Eds.), Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (pp. 402-407). Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society.

Hupert, M. L., Wang, H. Chen, H. -., Stryjewski, W. Patterson, D. Witek, M. A., Datta, P. Goettert, J. Murphy, M. C., & Soper, S. A. (2008). A Field-Deployable System For Automated Molecular Testing Using Modular Microfluidics. In L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, B. M. Paegel, D. J. Ross, & W. N. Vreeland (Eds.), Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (pp. 1946-1948). Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society.

Menard, L. D., Soper, S. A., Braun, K. L., Huang, C. & Ramsey, J. M. (2008). Analysis Of Single DNA Molecules Translocating Through Nanochannels Fabricated in SiO2. In L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, B. M. Paegel, D. J. Ross, & W. N. Vreeland (Eds.), Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (pp. 847-849). Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society.

Chen, P. C., Park, D. S., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Datta, P. Desta, Y. Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Design And Performance Of A Rapid Nanoliter Continuous Flow Polymerase Chain Reactor For A High Throughput Microsystem. In L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, B. M. Paegel, D. J. Ross, & W. N. Vreeland (Eds.), Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (pp. 619-621). Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society.

Njoroge, S. K., Witek, M. A., Hupert, M. L., Coyne, J. Barron, A. Batzer, M. A., Menard, L. D., & Soper, S. A. (2008). Human Identification Using ALUs Analyzed Via An Integrated Microfluidic System With Multicolor Fluorescence and Microship Free Solution Conjugate Electrophoresis. In L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, B. M. Paegel, D. J. Ross, & W. N. Vreeland (Eds.), Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (pp. 946-948). Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society.

Okagbare, P. I., Gottert, J. Datta, P. Singh, V. & Soper, S. A. (2008). Polymer-Based Dense Fluidic Networks For High Throughput Screening (HTS) With Ultrasensitive Fluorescence. In L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, B. M. Paegel, D. J. Ross, & W. N. Vreeland (Eds.), Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (pp. 594-596). Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society.

Chen, P. -., Park, D. S., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Desta, Y. Park, S. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). A thermal system for high throughput continuous flow polymerase chain reaction device (CFPCR). In Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Boston, MA, Oct. 31-Nov. 6, IMECE2008-68975.

You, B. H., Park, D. S., Chen, P. -., Rani, S. D., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Assembly tolerance analysis for injection molded modular, polymer microfluidic devices. In 2008 Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Boston, MA, Oct. 31-Nov. 6, IMECE2008-68143.

Park, T. Jensen, T. Park, D. S., Guy, J. Datta, P. Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Capture of very rare circulating tumor cells for human breast cancer diagnosis. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings.ΓÇë2008; 11 PART A: 131- 137.

Lee, T. Y., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Park, D. S., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Design and fabrication of a ligase detection reaction (LDR) microchip with an integrated passive micromixer. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings, 11 PART A:125-130.

Chen, P. -., Park, D. S., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Datta, P. Desta, Y. Park, S. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Design and performance of a rapid, nanoliter, continuous flow polymerase chain reactor for a high throughput microsystem. In Proceedings of the 12th International conference on Miniaturized System for Chemistry and Life sciences, San Diego, CA, USA, Oct. 12-16, MicroTAS0906.

Kim, N. Evans, E. T., Park, D. S., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Gas-liquid two-phase flow in hot embossed square microchannels. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings, 11 PART A: 427-436.

Kim, N. Evans, E. T., Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Nikitopoulos, D. E. (2008). Investigation of two-phase flow in rectangular micro-channels. In Proceedings of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Conference, FEDSM 2008, 2: 451-461.

Maha, A. Palaparthy, V. Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Nikitopoulos, D. E. (2008). Optimized high-aspect-ratio diffusional micromixers. In Proceedings of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Conference, FEDSM 2008.ΓÇë2009; 2: 555-556.

Chen, P. -., You, B. H., Park, D. S., Park, S. Guy, J. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Replication of reliable assembly features for polymer modular microfluidic systems. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings, 11 PART A:119-124.

Park, D. S., Chen, P. -., You, B. H., Kim, N. Park, T. Lee, T. Y., Datta, P. Desta, Y. Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Small footprint continuous flow PCR devices for a 96-well CFPCR multireactor platform. In Hilton Head 2008: A Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Workshop, Hilton Head Island, SC, USA, June 1-5.

Witek, M. Park, D. Hupert, M. McCarley, R. L., Murphy, M. C., & Soper, S. A. (2008). 96 Well Microfluidic Titer Plate for High Throughput Purification of DNA and RNA. Anal. Chem, 80, 3483-3491.

Wang, Y. Chen, H. He, Q. & Soper, S. A. (2008). A High Performance Polycarbonate Electrophoresis Microchip with Integrated Three Electrode System for End-channel Amperometric Detection. Electrophoresis, 29, 1881-1888.

Wang, Y. R., Chen, H. W., & Soper, S. A. (2008). A High-Performance Polycarbonate Electrophoresis Microchip with Integrated Three- Electrode System for End-Channel Amperometric Detection. Electrophoresis, 29, 1881-1888.

Park, D. W., Hupert, M. L., Witek, M. A., You, B. H., Datta, P. Guy, J. Lee, J. B., Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). A Titer Plate-based Polymer Microfluidic Platform for High Throughput Nucleic Acid Purification. Biomed. Microdev, 10, 21-33.

Adams, A. A., Okagbare, P. Feng, J. McCarley, R. L., Murphy, M. C., & Soper, S. A. (2008). Capture and Enumeration of Circulating Tumor Cells from Peripheral Blood using Microfluidics. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 130, 8633-8641.

Emory, J. & Soper, S. A. (2008). Charge-Coupled Device Operated in a Time-Delayed Integration Mode as an Approach to High-Throughput Flow-Based Single Molecule Analysis. Anal. Chem, 80, 3897-3903.

Lee, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2008). Design and Fabrication of an Electrochemically Actuated (ECM) Microvalve. Microsystem Technologies-Micro-and Nanosystems-Information Storage and Processing System, 14, 1751-1756.

Lee, J. Musyimi, H. K., Soper, S. A., & Murray, K. K. (2008). Development of an Automated Digestion and Droplet Deposition Microfluidic Chip for MALDI-TOF MS. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrosc, 19, 964-972.

Balamurugan, S. Obubuafo, A. McCarley, R. L., Soper, S. A., & Spivak, D. A. (2008). Effect of Linker Structure on Surface Density of Aptamer Monolayers and their Corresponding Protein Binding Efficiency. Anal. Chem, 80, 9630-9634.

Mei, Q. Xia, Z. Xu, F. Soper, S. A., & Fan, Z. H. (2008). Fabrication of Microfluidic Reactors and Mixing Studies for Luciferase Detection. Anal. Chem, 80, 6045-6050.

Osiri, J. Shadpour, H. Park, S. Snowden, B. C., Chen, Z. & Soper, S. A. (2008). Generating High Peak Capacity 2-Dimensional Maps of Complex Proteomes Using Poly(methyl methacrylate) Microchip Electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 29, 4984 - 4992.

Sinville, R. Soper, S. A., Coyne, J. Meagher, R. J., Barron, A. Cheng, Y. -., & Barany, F. (2008). Ligase Detection Reaction Mutation Screening via Free Solution Electrophoresis in a Polymeric Microfluidic Device. Electrophoresis, 29, 4751-4760.

Bolivar, J. G., Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2008). Nitroavidin as a Ligand for the Surface Capture and Release of Biotinylated Proteins. Anal. Chem, 80, 9336 - 9342.

Obubuafo, A. Balamurugan, S. Shadpour, H. Spivak, D. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2008). Poly(methylmethacrylate) Microchip Affinity Capillary Gel Electrophoresis of Aptamer-Protein Complexes for the Analysis of Thrombin in Plasma. Electrophoresis, 29, 3436-3445.

Erdem, S. S., Nesterova, I. Soper, S. A., & Hammer, R. L. (2008). Solid-Phase Synthesis of Asymmetrically Substituted "AB3-type" Phthalocyanines. J. Org. Chem, 73, 5003-5007.

Balamurugan, S. Obubuafo, A. Soper, S. A., & Spivak, D. A. (2008). Surface immobilization methods for aptamer diagnostic applications. Anal. Bioanal. Chem, 390, 1009-1-21.

Chen, P. C., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2008). Temperature Distribution Effects on Micro-CFPCR Performance. Biomed. Microdev, 10, 141-152.

Park, D. S., Hupert, M. L., Witek, M. Guy, J. Datta, P. You, B. H., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2007). A 96-well SPRI reactor in a photo-activated polycarbonate (PPC) microfluidic chip. In Proceedings of MEMS 2007 20th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, pp. 433-436, Kobe, Japan, Jan. 21-25.

You, B. H., Park, D. S., Chen, P. -., Caceres, W. M., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2007). Dimensional and locational integrity in the replication of polymeric microdevices. In Proceedings of ASME InterPACK 2007, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 8-12, IPACK2007-33482.

Lee, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2007). Fabrication of a microfluidic system with integrated electrochemical pump and valves. In Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.ΓÇë6465.

Chen, P. -., You, B. H., Park, D. S., Park, S. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2007). Replication of reliable assembly features for polymer modular microfluidic systems. In Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Seattle, WA, Nov. 11-15, IMECE2007-42206.

Yang, R. Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. J. (2007). A New UV Lithography Photoresist Based on Composite of EPON Resins 165 and 154 for Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures. Sens. Act. A, 135, 625-636.

Park, D. Witek, M. Hupert, M. McCarley, R. L., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2007). Fabrication of Large Area Mold Inserts for Replication of Polymer Microparts. Biomed. Microdev, 19.

Chen, G. Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2007). Free-standing, Erect Ultra-high-aspect-ratio Polymer Nanopillar and Nanotube Ensembles. Langmuir, 23, 11777-11781.

Chen, G. McCarley, R. L., Soper, S. A., Situma, C. & Bolivar, J. G. (2007). Functional Template-derived PMMA Nanopillars for Solid-Phase Biological Reactions. Chem. of Mat, 19, 3855-3857.

Sinville, R. & Soper, S. A. (2007). High Resolution DNA Separations using Microchip Electrophoresis. J. Sep. Sci, 30, 1714-1728.

Situma, C. Moehring, A. Noor, M. & Soper, S. A. (2007). Immobilization of Molecular Beacon Probes onto UV-Activated PMMA Surfaces: Analysis of Drosophilia melongastor Genes. Anal. Biochem, 363, 35-45.

Chen, G. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2007). Integration of Large Area Polymer Nanopillar Arrays into Microfluidic Chips using in situ Polymerization Cast Molding. Lab Chip, 7, 1424-1427.

Nesterova, I. Verdree, V. T., Pakhomov, S. Strickler, K. Allen, M. W., Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (2007). Metallo-Phthalocyanine Near-IR Fluorophores: Oligonucleotide Conjugates and Their Applications. Bioconj. Chem, 18, 2159-2168.

Verdree, V. Pakhomov, S. Su, G. Allen, M. W., Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (2007). Metallo-Phthalocyanines: The Role of the Solubilizing Groups on the Spectral and Photophysical Properties. J. Fluoresc, 17, 547-563.

Hupert, M. Shadpour, H. Nikitopoulos, D. & Soper, S. A. (2007). Micro-milling of polymers for microfluidic applications. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 3, 1-11.

Shadpour, H. Hupert, M. Patterson, D. Liu, C. Stryjewski, W. & Soper, S. A. (2007). Multi-channel microchip electrophoresis device fabricated in polycarbonate with an integrated contact conductivity sensor array. Anal. Chem, 79, 870-878.

Xu, F. Datta, P. Wang, H. Gurung, S. Hashimoto, M. Wei, S. Goettert, J. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2007). Polymer Microfluidic Chips with Integrated Waveguides for Reading Microarrays. Anal. Chem, 79, 9007-9013.

Hashimoto, M. Barany, F. & Soper, S. A. (2007). Serial Processing of Polymerase Chain Reaction/Ligase Detection Reaction Using Flow- Through Microfluidic Devices for the Detection of Low-Abundant DNA Point Mutations. Analyst, 132, 913-920.

Llopis, S. Osiri, J. & Soper, S. A. (2007). Surface Modification of PMMA Microfluidic Devices for High-Resolution Separations of Single-Stranded DNA. Electrophoresis, 28, 984-993.

Vasquez, M. Nesterova, I. Santos, A. Soper, S. A., & Vicente, G. (2007). Synthesis and Properties of Water-Soluble Zn(II)-phthalocyanine-peptide Conjugates. Bioconj. Chem, 18, 410-420.

Musyimi, H. Shadpour, H. Chen, G. McCarley, R. L., Murray, K. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Integrated Microfluidic System for Proteomics using Mixed- Scale Structures and MALDI-TOF-MS. In K. F. Jensen, D. Jed Harrison, & J. Voldman (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems . Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Zhu, L. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Multiplexed Fluorescence Detection for DNA Sequencinig. In C. Geddes & J. L. Lakowitz (Eds.), Reviews in Fluorescence (pp. 525-569). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Zhu, L. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Multiplexed Time-Resolved Fluorescence Detection. In N. Xu (Ed.), Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection. Wiley Publishers.

Witek, M. A., Hupert, M. L., & Soper, S. A. (2006). Single Cell and Single Molecule Analyses using Microfluidics. In W. Wang & S. A. Soper (Eds.), Bio-MEMS: Technologies and Applications (pp. 391-442). CRC Press.

Soper, S. A. (2006). Three-Dimensional Biologically-Active Nanostructured. In K. F. Jensen, D. Jed Harrison, & J. Voldman (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Chen, G. Situma, C. Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2006). Architectures in Polymer-Based Microfluidic Devices for Biomarker Detection.

Wang, W. & Soper, S. A. (Eds.). (2006). Bio-MEMS: Technologies and Applications (W. Wang & S. A. Soper, Eds.). CRC Press.

Elmajdoub, N. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2006). Design Aspects and Simulations of a Modified Micro-Scale Electrophoretron. In Proceedings of the ASME IMECE 2006, Paper IMECE2006-15365.

Park, D. S., Hupert, M. L., Guy, J. Datta, P. Witek, M. You, B. H., Lee, J. -., Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2006). Microtiter Plate-based Microfluidic Platforms: Sealing, Leakage Testing, and Performance of a 96-well SPRI Device. In Proceedings of the ASME IMECE 2006, Paper IMECE2006-15275, Chicago, IL, Nov. 5-10.

You, B. H., Chen, P. C., Guy, J. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Datta, P. (2006). Passive Alignment Structures in Modular, Polymer Microfluidic Devices. In Proceedings of the ASME IMECE 2006, Chicago, IL, Nov. 5-10, Paper IMECE2006-16100.

Chen, P. -., Chen, J. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2006). Performance of an Electrokinetic Shuttle Polymerase Chain Reactor. In Proceedings of the ASME IMECE 2006, Paper IMECE2006-15239.

Rani, S. Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2006). Simulation of Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flows in Microfluidic Interconnects. In Proceedings of the ASME IMECE 2006, Paper IMECE2006-15388.

You, B. H., Park, D. S., Mock, C. Caceres, W. M., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2006). Tolerance Variation and Passive Alignment in Modular, Polymer Microfluidic Devices. In Proceedings of the ASME IMECE 2006, Chicago, IL, USA, Nov. 5-10, Paper IMECE2006-15258.

Yang, R. Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2006). A New UV Lithography Photoresist Based on Composite of EPON Resins 165 and 154 for Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures. Sens. & Act. A, 127, 123-130.

Chen, J. Wang, H. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Continuous Flow Thermal Cycler Microchip for Cycle Sequencing. Anal. Chem, 78, 6223-6231.

Dovichi, N. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Cost-benefit analysis of the RFA. Science, 314, 1682.

Balamurugan, S. Obubuafo, A. Soper, S. A., McCarley, R. L., & Spivak, D. A. (2006). Designing Highly Specific Biosensing Surfaces using Aptamer Monolayers on Gold. Langmuir, 22, 6446-6453.

Kong, Y. Chen, H. Wang, Y. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Fabrication of gold microelectrodes for amperometric detection on a polycarbonate chip by photo-directed electroless plating. Electrophoresis, 27, 2940-2950.

Shadpour, H. Musyimi, H. Chen, J. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Investigation of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Various Polymers for Microchip Electrophoresis Applications. J. Chromatogr. A, 1111, 238-251.

Situma, C. Hashimoto, M. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Merging Microfluidics Technology into Microarray-Based Bioassays. Biomol. Eng, 23, 213-231.

Yang, R. Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2006). Microfabrication of pre-aligned fiber bundle couplers using ultraviolet lithography of SU-8. Sensors and Actuators A, 127, 123-130.

Soper, S. A. (2006). Point-of-Care Biosensors for Cancer Diagnostics/Prognostics. Biosen. & Bioelectr, 21, 1932-1942.

Hashimoto, M. Barany, F. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Polymerase Chain Reaction/Ligase Detection Reaction/Hybridization Assays Using Flow- Through Microfluidic Devices for the Detection of Low Abundant DNA Point Mutations. Biosen. & Bioelectr, 21, 1915-1923.

Perry, L. Witek, M. Sinville, R. & Soper, S. A. (2006). SPRI for Isolating Genomic DNA from Whole Cell Lysates. Nucleic Acids Res, 34, e74.

Shadpour, H. & Soper, S. A. (2006). Two-Dimensional Separation of Proteins using Poly(methyl methacrylate) Microchips. Anal. Chem, 78, 3519-3527.

Chen, G. Bolivar, J. G., Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2005). Highly efficient protein capture and enzyme reactor beds based on ultra-high-aspect-ratio nanostructures (UHARNS). In K. F. Jensen, D. Jed Harrison, & J. Voldman (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems (pp. 1261-1263). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Yang, R. Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2005). Fabrication of out-of-plane concave and convex refractive microlens array. In Proceedings of MEMS/MOEMS Components and Their Applications II, the SPIE International Symposium on MOEMS-MEMS Micro & Nanofabrication, Photonics West, 5717, San Jose, California, 134-141.

Lee, D. E., Wang, W. & Soper, S. A. (2005). Microfabrication and test of an electrochemical microactuator. In The SPIE International Symposium on MOEMS- MEMS Micro- & Nanofabrication Photonics West.

Yang, R. Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2005). Microfabrication and test of pre-aligned fiber bundle couplers using UV lithography of SU-8. In The SPIE International Symposium on MOEMS- MEMS Micro- & Nanofabrication Photonics West.

Yang, R. Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2005). Microfabrication of an Integrated SU-8 Waveguide with an Imbedded Focusing Lens for Application in Single Molecule Detection (SMD). In Proceedings of Microfluidics, BioMEMS and Medical Microsystems III, The SPIE International Symposium on MOEMS-MEMS Micro & Nanofabrication Photonics West, 5718, San Jose, California, 54-59.

Musyimi, H. K., Guy, J. Narcisse, D. A., Soper, S. A., & Murray, K. K. (2005). Direct Coupling of Polymer-Based Microchip Electrophoresis to On-line Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption / Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) Using a Rotating Ball Inlet. Electrophoresis, 26, 4703-4710.

Chen, J. Chen, H. Wabuyele, M. Patterson, D. Hupert, M. Shadpour, H. & Soper, S. A. (2005). Electrokinetically-synchronized Polymerase Chain Reaction Microchip Fabricated in Polycarbonante. Anal. Chem, 77, 658-666.

Soper, S. A., Hashimoto, M. Situma, C. Murphy, M. C., McCarley, R. L., Chen, Y. W., & Barany, F. (2005). Fabrication of DNA microarrays onto polymer substrates using UV modification protocols with integration into microfluidic platforms for the sensing of low-abundant DNA point mutations. Methods, 37, 103-113.

Hashimoto, M. Hupert, M. Cheng, Y. Barany, F. & Soper, S. A. (2005). Ligase Detection Reaction/Hybridization Assays using Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Networks for the Detection of Low Abundant DNA Mutations. Anal. Chem, 77, 3243-3255.

Yang, R. Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2005). Out of Plane Microlens Array Fabricated using UV-Lithography. Appl. Phys. Lett, 86, 161110-1 ΓÇô 161110-3.

Wei, S. Vaidya, B. Patel, A. B., Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2005). Photochemically Patterned Poly(methyl methacrylate) Surfaces Used in the Fabrication of Microanalytical Devices. J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 16988-16996.

Situma, C. Wang, Y. Hupert, M. Barany, F. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2005). Rapid Patterning of DNA Microarrays on Photo-Activated PMMA for the Detection of Low Abundant Point Mutations in K-ras Genes. Anal. Biochem, 340, 123-135.

McCarley, R. L., Vaidya, B. Wei, S. Smith, A. F., Patel, A. B., Feng, J. Murphy, M. C., & Soper, S. A. (2005). Resist-Free Patterning of Surface Architectures in Polymer-Based Microanalytical Devices. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 127, 842-843.

Adams, A. & Soper, S. A. (2004). Low abundant biomarker screening in poly(methylmethacrylate) high aspect ratio microstructures using immunoaffinity-based molecular recognition. In K. F. Jensen, D. Jed Harrison, & J. Voldman (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems (Vol. 1, pp. 132-134). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

McCarley, R. L., Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., Wei, S. Smith, A. F., Vaidya, B. & Feng, J. (2004). Patterning of surface-capture architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices. In M. Allen Northrup, K. F. Jensen, & D. Jed Harrison (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems (pp. 130-132). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Barrett, D. Maha, A. Wang, Y. Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. & Murphy, M. C. (2004). Design of a Microfabricated Device for Ligase Detection Reactions. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 5345, 78-88.

Barrett, D. O., Maha, A. Wang, Y. Soper, S. A., Nikitopoulos, D. E., & Murphy, M. C. (2004). Design of a Microfabricated Device for Ligase Detection Reactions. In Paper IMECE2004-62111, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Expo, November 13-19, Anaheim, California.

Chen, P. Hashimoto, M. Mitchell, M. W., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2004). Limiting Performance of High Throughput Continouous Flow micro-PCR. In Paper IMECE2004-62091, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Expo, November 13-19, Anaheim, California.

Feng, J. Soper, S. A., McCarley, R. L., & Murphy, M. C. (2004). Separation of Breast Cancer Cells in Peripherally Circulating Blood Using Antibodies Fixed in Microchannels. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 5312, 278- 293.

Maha, A. Barrett, D. Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., & Nikitopoulos, D. (2004). Simulation and Design of Micro-Mixers for Microfluidic Devices. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 5345, 183-193.

Wei, S. Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2004). Solid-phase immunoassay on polymer-based microanalytical devices. In Polymer Preprints (American Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry) 45, 434-435.

Witek, M. Wei, S. Adams, A. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2004). Cell Transport and Lysis in Plastic Microfluidic Chips. Lab Chip, 4, 464-472.

Thomas, G. A., Sinville, R. Sutton, S. Farquar, H. D., Wei, Y. Barany, F. Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (2004). Detecting Low Abundant Point Mutations in K-ras Genes using Micro-electrophoresis in Plastic Chips. Electrophoresis, 25, 1668-1677.

Zhu, L. & Soper, S. A. (2004). Fluorescence Lifetime Identification Methods for High Throughput DNA Sequencing in Plastic Chips. Anal. Biochem, 330, 206-218.

Llopis, S. & Soper, S. A. (2004). Near-infrared Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Determinations in Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Microchip Electrophoresis Devices. Electrophoresis, 25, 3810-3819.

Musyimi, H. K., Narcisse, D. Xhang, X. Soper, S. A., & Murray, K. K. (2004). Online CE MALDI-TOF-MS using a Rotating Ball Interface. Anal. Chem, 6, 5968-5973.

Hashimoto, M. Chen, P. Mitchell, M. W., Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2004). Rapid PCR in a Continuous Flow Device. Lab Chip, 4, 638-645.

Lassiter, S. Owens, C. V., & Soper, S. A. (2003). Fluorescence Detection in DNA Sequencing. In T. Vo Dinh (Ed.), Biomedical Photonics Handbook (pp. 53-1 - 53-48). CRC Press.

Soper, S. A., Hupert, M. Hashimoto, M. McCarley, R. L., & Murphy, M. C. (2003). Polymer-based Modular Microsystems for DNA Sequencing. In M. Allen Northrup, K. F. Jensen, & D. Jed Harrison (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems (pp. 717-720). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

McCarley, R. L., Soper, S. A., Vaidya, B. Henry, A. C., Smith, A. F., Wei, S. Galloway, M. & Wang, Y. (2003). Augmenting the capabilities of polymeric microanalytical devices. In Polymer Preprints (American Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry) 44, 549.

Wabuyele, M. Farquar, H. Hammer, R. P., Cheng, Y. -., Barany, F. & Soper, S. A. (2003). Detection of Low Abundant Mutations in DNA Using Single Molecule FRET and Ligase Detection Reactions. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 4962, 58-69.

Lee, D. E., Chen, H. -., Soper, S. A., & Wang, W. (2003). Electrochemical Micropump and Its Application in a DNA Mixing and Analysis System. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 4982, 264-271.

Mitchell, M. W., Liu, X. Bejat, Y. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Soper, S. A., & Murphy, M. C. (2003). Modeling and Validation of a Molded Polycarbonate Continuous-flow Polymerase Chain Reaction Device. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 4982, 83-98.

Hupert, M. L., Witek, M. A., Wang, Y. Mitchell, M. W., Liu, Y. Bejat, Y. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Goettert, J. Murphy, M. C., & Soper, S. A. (2003). Polymer-based Microfluidic Systems for Biomedical Applications. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 4982, 52-64.

Soper, S. A., McCarley, R. L., Murphy, M. C., Chen, J. Zhu, J. & Wei, S. (2003). Polymer-based Modular Microsystems for DNA Sequencing. In Micro Total Analysis Systems 2003, 1, 717- 720.

Zhu, L. Stryjewski, W. Lassiter, S. & Soper, S. A. (2003). Fluorescence Multiplexing with Both Time-Resolved and Spectral Discrimination Capabilities using a Near-IR Microscope. Anal. Chem, 75, 2280-2291.

Yang, Y. Vaidya, B. Cheng, Y. Barany, F. Farquar, H. D., Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (2003). Microarrays Assembled in Microfluidic Chips Fabricated form Poly(methylmethacrylate) for the Detection of Low Abundant Mutations. Anal. Chem, 75, 1130-1140.

Wabuyele, M. Stryjewski, W. Cheng, Y. Barany, F. Farquar, H. Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (2003). Single Pair FRET Generated from Molecular Beacon Probes for the Real-Time Analysis of Low Abundant Mutations. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 125, 6937-6945.

Zhu, L. Vaidya, B. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2003). Solid Phase Reversible Immobilization in Microfluidic Chips for the Purification of Dye- Labeled DNA Sequencing Fragment. Anal. Chem, 75, 2975-2984.

Lassiter, S. Owens, C. V., & Soper, S. A. (2002). DNA Sequencing. In J. Lakowicz (Ed.), Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy: DNA Technology (pp. 410-445). Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Vaidya, B. Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2002). Photoresist-free micropatterning of polymer surfaces used in microanalytical devices. In J. Michael Ramsey & A. van den Berg (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems (pp. 446-448). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Soper, S. A., Owens, C. V., & Legendre, B. (2002). Single Molecule Detection in the Near-IR. In C. Zander, J. Enderlein, & R. A. Keller (Eds.), Single Molecule Detection in Solution: Methods and Applications (pp. 323-362). Wiley-VCH.

Bejat, Y. Liu, X. Nikitopoulos, D. E., Murphy, M. C., Mitchell, M. W., & Soper, S. A. (2002). A Continuous Flow Polymerization Chain Reaction (CFPCR) Micro-Chip. In Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 47, 15. In, 55th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Dallas TX.

Smith, A. F., Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2002). Micro Total Analysis Systems . In Proceedings of the mTAS 2002 Symposium, 6th, Nara, Japan, Nov. 3-7: Smart, temperature-responsive surfaces, pp. 473-475.

Stryjewski, W. J., Soper, S. A., Lassiter, S. & Davis, L. M. (2002). Multiplexed Analysis Using Time-Resolved Near-IR Fluorescence for the Detection of Genomic Material. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 4626, 201-209.

Hammer, R. P., Owens, C. V., Hwang, S. Sayes, C. & Soper, S. A. (2002). Asymmetrical, Water Soluble Phthalocyanine (Pc) Dyes for Covalent Labeling of Oligonucleotides. Bioconj. Chem, 13, 1244-1252.

Thomas, G. A., Farquar, H. D., Sutton, S. Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (2002). BioMEMS using Electrophoresis for the Analysis of Genetic Mutations. Expert Rev. Molc. Diagn, 2, 429-447.

Galloway, M. Stryjewski, W. Patterson, D. Henry, A. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2002). Contact Conductivity Detection in PMMA-Based Microfluidic Devices for the Transduction of Mono- and Polyionic Molecules. Anal. Chem, 74, 2407-2415.

Galloway, M. & Soper, S. A. (2002). Contact Conductivity Detection of PCR Products Analyzed by Reverse-Phase Ion Pair Capillary Electrochromatography. Electrophoresis, 23, 3760-3768.

Qi, S. Ford, S. Liu, X. Barrows, J. Thomas, G. Kelly, K. McCandless, A. Lian, K. Goettert, J. & Soper, S. A. (2002). Hot Embossing High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures in Poly(methyl methacrylate) for Constructing Microfluidic Devices with Integrated Components. Lab Chip, 2, 88-95.

Lassiter, S. & Soper, S. A. (2002). Multiplexed Detection and Identification of DNAs using Lifetime Methods. Spectroscopy, 17, 14-23.

Lassiter, S. & Soper, S. A. (2002). Optimization of Sequencing Conditions for Time-Resolved Multiplexed Detection in DNA Sequencing Applications using Near-IR Fluorescence Detection. Electrophoresis, 23, 1480-1489.

Vaidya, B. Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2002). Surface Modification and Characterization of Microfabricated Poly(carbonante) Devices: Manipulation of Electroosmotic Flow. Analyst, 127, 1289-1292.

Soper, S. A., Galloway, M. Henry, A. C., Vaidya, B. Wang, Y. & McCarley, R. L. (2002). Surface Modification of Polymer-based Microfluidic Devices. Anal. Chim. Acta, 470, 87-99.

Lassiter, S. J., Stryjewski, W. J., Wang, Y. & Soper, S. A. (2002). Shedding Light on DNA Analysis: Multiplexed Detection and Identification using Fluorescence Lifetime Methods. PharmaGenomics, 16-32.

Henry, A. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2001). Chemical Foundations for Plastic-based Microdevices: Chemically Modified Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Poly(carbonate) Substrates used in the Fabrication of Microanalytical Devices. In J. Michael Ramsey & A. van den Berg (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems (pp. 607-608). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Soper, S. A., & Thomas, G. (2001). Fabrication of Modular Microsystems for Analyzing K-ras Mutations using LDR. In J. Michael Ramsey & A. van den Berg (Eds.), Micro Total Analysis Systems (pp. 459-461). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

McCarley, R. L., Henry, A. C., Smith, A. Vaidya, B. Galloway, M. Wang, Y. & Soper, S. A. (2001). Chemical Foundations for Plastic-based Microdevices: Chemically Modified Poly(methylmethacrylate) and Poly(carbonate) Substrates used in the Fabrication of Microanalytical Devices. Micro Total Analysis Systems, 24, 607-609.

Soper, S. A., Murphy, M. C., McCarley, R. L., Nikitopoulos, D. Liu, X. Vaidya, B. Barrow, J. Bejat, Y. Ford, S. M., & Goettert, J. (2001). Fabrication of Modular Microsystems for Analyzing K-ras Mutations Using LDR. Micro Total Analysis Systems, 459-461.

Thomas, G. Spring, L. Williams, V. & Soper, S. A. (2001). Heteroduplex Analysis of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis using High-Resolution Capillary Electrophoresis. Clin. Chem, 47, 1195-1203.

Davidson, Y. Y., Soper, S. A., Margolis, S. & Sander, L. C. (2001). Immobilization of Restriction Enzymes on Porous Silica Particles via a Glutaraldehyde Linkage for the Micro-Digestion of dsDNAs with Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis. J. Sep. Sci, 24, 10-16.

Davidson, Y. Y., Soper, S. A., Margolis, S. & Sander, L. C. (2001). Immobilization of the restriction enzyme HaeIII and HindIII on Porous Silica Particles via a Glutaraldehyde Linkage for the Micro-Digestion of dsDNA with Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis. J. Sep. Sci, 24, 10-16.

Meng, Z. Qi, S. Soper, S. A., & Limbach, P. A. (2001). Interfacing a Polymer-based Micromachined Device to a Nanoelectrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer. Anal. Chem, 73, 1286-1291.

Wabuyele, M. & Soper, S. A. (2001). PCR Amplification and Sequencing of Single Copy DNA Molecules. Single Molecules, 2, 13-21.

Wabuyele, M. & Soper, S. A. (2001). Single Molecule Analysis of dsDNA Molecules in Polymer Microfluidic Chips. Electrophoresis, 22, 3939-3948.

Soper, S. A. (2001). Foreword: Young Investigators. Analyst, 126, U1.

McWhorter, S. & Soper, S. A. (2000). Conductivity Detection of PCR Products Separated by Open Tubular Liquid Chromatography. J. Chromatogr, 883, 1-9.

Waddell, E. Wang, Y. Stryjewski, W. McWorter, S. Henry, A. Evans, D. McCarley, R. L., & Soper, S. A. (2000). High Resolution Near-IR Imaging of DNA Micro-arrays with Time-Resolved Acquisition of Fluorescence Lifetimes. Anal. Chem, 72, 5907-5917.

Xu, Y. & Soper, S. A. (2000). Micro-Capillary Reactors for Direct Sample Introduction into Slab Gels for Solid-Phase DNA Sequencing. BioTechniques, 28, 904-912.

Soper, S. A., Ford, S. M., Qi, S. McCarley, R. L., Kelly, K. & Murphy, M. C. (2000). Microelectromechnical Systems (MEMS) Fabricated in Polymeric Materials: Applications in Chemistry and Life Sciences. Anal. Chem, 72, 642A-651A.

McWhorter, S. & Soper, S. A. (2000). Near-Infrared Fluorescence Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 21, 1267-1280.

Henry, A. C., Tutt, T. T., McWhorter, C. S., Davidson, Y. Y., Galloway, M. Soper, S. A., & McCarley, R. L. (2000). Surface Modification of Plastics Used in the Fabrication of Microanalytical Devices. Anal. Chem, 72, 5331-5337.

Lassiter, S. J., Stryjewski, W. Legendre, B. L., Erdmann, R. Wahl, M. Wurm, J. Peterson, R. Middendorf, L. & Soper, S. A. (2000). Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging of Slab Gels for Lifetime Base-Calling in DNA Sequencing Applications. Anal. Chem, 72, 5373-5382.

Waddell, E. Lassiter, S. & Soper, S. A. (2000). Time-Resolved Near-IR Fluorescence Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis. J. Liq. Chrom. & Rel. Technol, 23, 1139-1158.

Zhang, Y. Soper, S. A., Middendorf, L. R., Wurm, J. Erdmann, R. & Wahl, M. (1999). A Simple Scanning Near-Infrared Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Instrument with a Pulsed Diode Laser and Avalanche Photodiode (APD) For Time-Resolved Measurements in Scanning Applications with DNA Sequencer. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 3602, 403-414.

Soper, S. A., Ford, S. M., Xu, Y. McWhorter, S. Lassiter, S. & Patterson, D. (1999). Nano-Scale Sample Preparation Methods Directly Coupled to PMMA-Based Micro-chips and Gel-Filled Capillaries for the Analysis of Oligonucleotides. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 3602, 392-402.

Zhang, Y. Soper, S. A., Middendorf, L. Wurm, J. Erdmann, R. & Wahl, M. (1999). A Scanning Near-Infrared Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Instrument with a Pulsed Diode Laser and Avalanche Photodiode. Appl. Spectrosc, 53, 497-504.

Ford, S. M., Davies, J. Kar, B. Owens, C. V., Soper, S. A., Klopf, M. Calderon, G. & Saile, V. (1999). High-Aspect Ratio Micromachining in Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using X-Ray Lithography for the Fabrication of Micro-Electrophoresis Devices. J. Biomech. Eng, 121, 13-21.

Soper, S. A., Ford, S. M., Xu, Y. Qi, S. McWhorter, S. Lassiter, S. & Patterson, D. (1999). Nanoliter-Scale Sample Preparation Methods Directly Coupled to PMMA-Based Micro-Chips and Gel-Filled Capillaries for the Analysis of Oligonucleotides. J. Chromatogr. A, 853, 107-120.

Billodeaux, D. R., Owens, C. V., Middendorf, L. Sayes, C. M., Soper, S. A., & Fronczek, F. R. (1999). Pseudosymmetry with Z'=4 in 1,3-propanesultone at 100K. Acta Crystallographica, 55, 2126-2129.

Waddell, E. Stryjewski, W. & Soper, S. A. (1998). A Fiber Optic-based Multichannel Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Device with Sub- Nanosecond Time Resolution. Rev. Sci. Instr, 70, 32-37.

Ford, S. Kar, B. McWhorter, S. Davies, J. Soper, S. A., Klopf, M. Calderon, G. & Saile, V. (1998). Microcapillary Electrophoresis Devices Fabricated using Polymeric Substrates and X-Ray Lithography. J. Microcol. Sep., 10, 413-422.

Soper, S. A., Warner, I. M., & McGowen, L. B. (1998). Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence and Chemiluminescence Spectrometry. Anal. Chem, 70, 477R-494R.

Flanagan, J. Owens, C. Romero, S. Waddell, W. Khan, S. Hammer, R. & Soper, S. A. (1998). Near-Infrared Heavy-Atom-Modified Fluorescent Dyes for Base-Calling in DNA-Sequencing Applications using Temporal Discrimination. Anal. Chem, 70, 2676-2684.

Kar, S. McWhorter, S. Ford, S. & Soper, S. A. (1998). Piezoelectric Mechanical Pump with Nanoliter per Minute Pulse-Free Flow Delivery for Pressure Pumping in Micro-Channels. Analyst , 123, 1435-1441.

Williams, D. C., Cheng, B. & Soper, S. A. (1998). Sanger DNA Sequencing Reactions Performed in a Solid-Phase Nano-Reactor Directly Coupled to Capillary Gel Electrophoresis. Anal. Chem, 70, 4036-4043.

Soper, S. A., & Legendre, B. L. (1998). Single-Molecule Detection in the Near-IR Using CW Diode Laser Excitation with an Avalanche Photon Detector. Appl. Spectrosc, 52, 1-6.

Soper, S. A. (1997). Optical Detection Strategies in Capillary Electrophoresis. In S. M. Lunte & D. M. Radzik (Eds.), Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis (pp. 181-228). Great Britain: Pergamon.

Erdmann, R. Wahl, M. Lauritsen, K. Enderlein, J. Legendre, Jr., B. L., Williams, D. C., & Soper, S. A. (1997). All-Solid-State TCPC Instrument for Dynamic Lifetime Measurements in Sensitive DNA Analysis. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2985, 138-144.

Flanagan, Jr., J. H., Romero, S. E., Legendre, Jr., B. L., Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (1997). Heavy-atom Modified Near-IR Fluorescent Dyes for DNA Sequencing Applications: Synthesis and Photophysical Characterization. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2980, 328-337.

Soper, S. A., Ford, S. M., Davies, J. Williams, D. C., Cheng, B. Klopf, J. M., Calderon, G. M., & Saile, V. (1997). Microelectrophoresis devices with integrated fluorescence detectors and reactors for high-throughput DNA sequencing. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2985,36-46.

Owens, C. V., Davidson, Y. Y., Kar, S. & Soper, S. A. (1997). Analysis of DNA Restriction Fragments using Capillary Electrophoresis with Near-IR Laser- Induced Fluorescence Detection. Anal. Chem, 69, 1256-1261.

Flanagan, J. H., Soper, S. A., & Hammer, R. P. (1997). Synthesis of Tricarbocyanine Near-IR Fluorescent Dyes for Labeling of Primary Amines. Bioconj. Chem, 8, 751-756.

Legendre, B. L., Sately, D. & Soper, S. A. (1997). Ultrasensitive Detection in CE using Near-IR Fluorescence and Diode Laser Excitation. J. Chromatogr, 779, 185-194.

Soper, S. A., Davidson, Y. Y., Flanagan, J. H., Legendre, B. L., Owens, C. Williams, D. C., & Hammer, R. P. (1996). Micro-DNA Sequence Analysis Using Capillary Electrophoresis and Near-IR Fluorescence Detection. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2680, 235-246.

Soper, S. A., Flanagan, J. H., Legendre, B. L., Williams, D. C., & Hammer, R. P. (1996). New Directions in Near-IR Fluorescence Detection for Capillary Electrophoresis. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2680, 134-145.

Legendre, Jr., B. L., Williams, D. C., Erdmann, R. Ortmann, U. Enderlein, J. & Soper, S. A. (1996). An All-Solid State Near-IR Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Instrument for Dynamic Lifetime Measurements in DNA Sequencing Applications. Rev. Sci. Instr, 67, 3984-3989.

Legendre, Jr., B. L., & Soper, S. A. (1996). High Resolution Separation of Proteins Stained with Tricarbocyanine Dyes using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Ultrasensitive Near-IR Fluorescence Detection. Appl. Spectrosc, 50, 1196-1202.

Warner, I. M., Soper, S. A., & McGowen, L. B. (1996). Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence and Chemiluminescence Spectroscopy. Anal. Chem, 68, 73R-91R.

Soper, S. A., Legendre, B. L., Williams, D. C., & Flanagan, J. H. (1996). Near-Infrared, Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection for DNA Sequencing Applications. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electr, 2, 1129-1139.

Davison, Y. Gunn, B. & Soper, S. A. (1996). Spectroscopic and Binding Properties of Tricarbocyanine Dyes Bound to Double-Stranded DNA. Appl. Spectrosc, 50, 211-221.

Williams, D. C., Flanagan, J. H., Legendre, Jr., B. L., Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (1995). Single Lane, Single Fluor Sequencing Using Dideoxy-Labeled, Heavy-Atom Modified Near-IR Fluorescent Dyes. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2386, 55-65.

Davidson, Y. Y., & Soper, S. A. (1995). Thermodynamic and Binding Properties of NIR Fluorescent Dyes to Double-Stranded DNA. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers 2388, 226-236.

Soper, S. A., Legendre, Jr., B. L., & Huang, J. (1995). Determination of Partition Coefficients and Photophysical Properties of Near-Infrared Fluorescent Dyes in Organized Media Using Single Molecule Monitoring. Chem. Phys. Lett, 237, 339-345.

Soper, S. A., Legendre, Jr., B. L., & Williams, D. C. (1995). On-Line Fluorescence Lifetime Determinations During Capillary Electrophoresis. Anal. Chem, 67, 4358-4365.

Soper, S. A., Legendre, Jr., B. L., & Williams, D. C. (1995). Single Molecule Detection in the Near-IR: Applications in Chemistry and Biochemistry. Exp. Techn. Phys, 41, 167-182.

Williams, D. C., & Soper, S. A. (1995). Ultrasensitive Near-IR Fluorescence Detection for Capillary Gel Electrophoresis and DNA Sequencing Applications. Anal. Chem, 67, 3427-3432.

Soper, S. A., Mattingly, Q. L., & Legendre, Jr., B. L. (1994). Picosecond Laser Studies of the Solvent-Dependent Nonradiative Pathways in Near-IR Fluorescent Dyes: Implications on their Use in Ultrasensitive Applications. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2138, 216-227.

Soper, S. A., Williams, D. C., Flanagan, J. H., Legendre, Jr., B. L., & Hammer, R. P. (1994). Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection in Capillary Electrophoretic Separations. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2136, 244-254.

Flanagan, J. H., Legendre, Jr., B. L., Hammer, R. P., & Soper, S. A. (1994). Binary Solvent Effects in Capillary Electrophoresis with Ultrasensitive Near-IR Fluorescence Detection of Related Tricarbocyanine Dyes and Dye-Labeled Amino Acids . Anal. Chem, 67, 341-347.

Soper, S. A., & Legendre, B. L. (1994). Error Analysis of Simple Algorithms for Determining Fluorescence Lifetimes in Ultradilute Dye Solutions . Appl. Spectrosc, 48, 400-405.

Soper, S. A., McGowen, L. B., & Warner, I. M. (1994). Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence and Chemiluminescence Spectrometry . Anal. Chem, 66, 428R-444R.

Soper, S. A., & Mattingly, Q. L. (1994). Steady-state and Picosecond Laser Studies of Nonradiative Pathways in Tricarbocyanine Dyes: Implications to the Design of Near-IR Fluorochromes with High Fluorescence Efficiencies . J. Am. Chem. Soc, 116, 3744-3752.

Soper, S. A., Mattingly, Q. L., Williams, D. Flanagan, J. Legendre, Jr., B. & Hammer, R. P. (1993). Fluorescence Detection of Single Near Infrared Molecules and Applications in Bioanalytical Chemistry. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineering, 1895, 113-122.

Soper, S. A., Mattingly, Q. L., & Vegunta, P. (1993). Photon Burst Detection of Single Near-Infrared Fluorescent Dye Molecules. Anal. Chem, 65, 740-747.

Soper, S. A., Davis, L. M., & Shera, E. B. (1992). Detection and Identification of Single Molecules in Solution. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 9, 1761-1769.

Soper, S. A., Shera, E. B., Davis, L. M., Nutter, H. L., & Keller, R. A. (1992). The Photophysical Constants of Several Visible Fluorescent Dyes and Their Effects on Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection. Photochem. & Photobiol, 57, 972-977.

Soper, S. A., Davis, L. M., Fairfield, F. R., Hammond, M. L., Harger, C. A., Jett, J. H., Keller, R. A., Marrone, B. L., Martin, J. C., Nutter, H. L., Shera, E. B., & Simpson, D. J. (1991). Rapid DNA Sequencing Based Upon the Detection of Single Molecules. In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 1435, 168-178.

Hahn, J. H., Soper, S. A., Nutter, H. L., Martin, J. C., Jett, J. H., & Keller, R. A. (1991). Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection of Rhodamine 6G at 5 x 10-15 M. Appl. Spectrosc, 45, 743-746.

Fairfield, E. R., Jett, J. H., Keller, R. A., Hahn, J. H., Krakowski, L. A., Marrone, B. L., Martin, J. C., Ratliff, R. L., Shera, E. B., & Soper, S. A. (1991). Rapid DNA Sequencing Based Upon Single Molecule Detection. Gen. Anal, 8, 1-7.

Soper, S. A., Hahn, J. H., Nutter, H. L., Shera, E. B., Martin, J. C., Jett, J. H., & Keller, R. A. (1991). Single Molecule Detection of R-6G in Ethanolic Solutions Utilizing CW Excitation. Anal. Chem, 63, 432-437.

Shera, E. B., Seitzinger, N. K., Davis, L. M., Keller, R. A., & Soper, S. A. (1990). Detection of Single Fluorescent Molecules. Chem. Phys. Lett, 174, 553-557.

Soper, S. A., Ratzlaff, K. & Kuwana, T. (1990). Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Liquid Chromatographic Analytes on Thin-Layer Chromatographic Plates. Anal. Chem, 62, 1438-1444.

Soper, S. A., Chamberlin, S. Johnson, C. K., & Kuwana, T. (1990). The Intramolecular Loss of Fluorescence by Lysine Derivatized with Naphthalenedialdehyde. Appl. Spectrosc, 44, 858-863.

Strojek, G. Soper, S. A., Ratzlaff, K. & Kuwana, T. (1990). Thin Layer Chromatography Diskette Storage of High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Effluents with Off-Line Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection. Anal. Sci, 6, 121-129.

Soper, S. A., Lunte, S. M., & Kuwana, T. (1989). High Sensitivity Fluorescence Detection of NDA-Derivatized Primary Amines with a Low Power He-Cd Laser for HPLC. Anal. Sci, 5, 23-29.

Soper, S. A., & Kuwana, T. (1989). Matrix-Isolated Luminescence of Primary Amines Derivatized with Naphthalenedialdehyde. Appl. Spectrosc, 43, 883-886.

Soper, S. A., & Kuwana, T. (1989). Matrix-Isolated Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: The Role of the Supporting Matrix. Appl. Spectrosc, 43, 1180-1187.

Johnson, C. K., & Soper, S. A. (1989). Nonlinear Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopy of Silver Colloids and Pyridine: Hyper-Raman and Second-Harmonic Scattering. J. Phys. Chem, 93, 7281-7285.

Gui, Y. Soper, S. A., & Kuwana, T. (1988). Long Optical Path Length Thin Layer Cuvette Cells. Anal. Chem, 60, 1645-1648.


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