Paulette Spencer

School of Engineering - Mechanical Engineering
Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor
Primary office:
785-864-8140
Learned Hall
Room 3111
University of Kansas
1530 West 15th Street
Lawrence, KS 66045


Summary

Expertise and Current Research Activity

Virtually everyone in the U.S. is at risk for oral disease. More than 40% of children in the U.S. have tooth decay by the time they reach kindergarten. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, decay is the most prevalent infectious disease in children in the U.S. In 2006, the repair of teeth destroyed by decay, trauma or age translated to 173 million fillings in the U.S. and more than half were replacements for failed fillings. These numbers will increase as dentists use more polymers (plastics).

A weak link in these plastic filling materials is the attachment to the tooth. Interestingly, anytime two dissimilar materials are joined the weakest link will generally be the interface. In the mouth, a biocompatible adhesive is used to bond the plastic filling material to the tooth. This adhesive, which forms a film less than one-fourth the thickness of a human hair, must not break when stressed by eating, talking or grinding your teeth. This adhesive must not dissolve in acids produced by bacteria, food or beverages. The adhesive must maintain a strong bond between the tooth and plastic filling material whether you are chewing on ice or drinking hot coffee.

I am known as a pioneer in molecular-level investigations of material/tissue interfaces. Reactions at the atomic, molecular and nano-scales initiate failure of biomaterials used to repair and restore tissues in the body. Armed with an understanding the reactions that lead to failure, members of my research team are engineering peptides to provide antimicrobial materials. My research team is developing a new generation of multi-functional materials for repair, reconstruction and regeneration of oral and craniofacial tissues. 

Education

Ph.D., Oral Biology and Physics (Interdisciplinary PhD), University of Missouri-Kansas City

M.S., Materials Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

M.S., Pediatric Dentistry, University of Minnesota

D.D.S., University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry

B.S., University of Missouri

Research Interests

  • Biomaterials
  • Dental materials
  • Material/tissue interfacial phenomena and characterization

Selected Publications

Xie, S. X., Boone, K. VanOosten, S. K., Yuca, E. Song, L. Ge, X. Ye, Q. Spencer, P. & Tamerler, C. (2019). Peptide Mediated Antimicrobial Dental Adhesive System. Appl Sci, 9, 557.

Song, L. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Misra, A. Tamerler, C. & Spencer, P. (2019). New silyl-functionalized BisGMA provides autonomous strengthening without leaching for dental adhesives. Acta biomaterialia, 83, 130-139. DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2018.10.033

Ye, Q. Abedin, F. Parthasarthy, R. & Spencer, P. (2018). Photoinitiating Systems in Dentistry: Challenges and Advances. In J. Lalevée & J. Fouassier (Eds.), Photopolymerisation Initiating Systems (pp. 297-336). The Royal Society of Chemistry .

Song, L. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Misra, A. Tamerler, C. & Spencer, P. (2018). Fabrication of Hybrid Crosslinked Network with Buffering Capabilities and Autonomous Strengthening Characteristics for Dental Adhesive. Acta Biomaterialia, 67, 111-121. DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.001

Parthasarathy, R. Misra, A. Song, L. Ye, Q. & Spencer, P. (2018). Structure-property relationships for wet dentin adhesive polymers. Biointerphases, 13(6), 061004. DOI:10.1116/1.5058072

Boone, K. Camarda, K. Spencer, P. & Tamerler, C. (2018). Antimicrobial peptide similarity and classification through rough set theory using physicochemical boundaries. BMC bioinformatics, 19(1), 469. DOI:10.1186/s12859-018-2514-6

Song, L. Ge, X. Ye, Q. Boone, K. Xie, S. X., Misra, A. Tamerler, C. & Spencer, P. (2018). Modulating pH through lysine integrated dental adhesives. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials, 34(11), 1652-1660. DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2018.08.293

Ye, Q. & Spencer, P. (2017). Analyses of Material-Tissue Interfaces by Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman Spectroscopy, and Chemometrics. In P. Spencer & A. Misra (Eds.), Material-Tissue Interfacial Phenomena. Contributions from Dental and Craniofacial Reconstructions (pp. 231-251). London: Elsevier.

Yuca, E. Utku, F. S., Spencer, P. & Tamerler, C. (2017). Chimeric Biomolecules: Biomolecular Recognition-Based Self-Organization at the Bio-Material Interface. In P. Spencer & A. Misra (Eds.), Material-Tissue Interfacial Phenomena. Contributions from Dental and Craniofacial Reconstructions (pp. 285-323). London: Elsevier.

Misra, A. Marangos, O. & Spencer, P. (2017). Dentinoenamel Junction: Motif for Interfacial Mechanics of Dissimilar materials. In P. Spencer & A. Misra (Eds.), Material-Tissue Interfacial Phenomena. Contributions from Dental and Craniofacial Reconstructions (pp. 267-283). London: Elsevier.

Spencer, P. Misra, A. & Ye, Q. (2017). Fundamentals of the Material-Tissue Interface in Dental Reconstructions: Structure/Property Relationships and Characterization. In P. Spencer & A. Misra (Eds.), Material-Tissue Interfacial Phenomena. Contributions from Dental and Craniofacial Reconstructions (pp. 85-111). London: Elsevier.

Spencer, P. & Misra, A. (Eds.). (2017). Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials: Number 124. Material-Tissue Interfacial Phenomena. Contributions from Dental and Craniofacial Reconstructions (P. Spencer & A. Misra, Eds.). London: Elsevier.

Ye, Q. Spencer, P. Yuca, E. & Tamerler, C. (2017). Engineered Peptide Repairs Defective Adhesive-Dentin Interface. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering , 302, 1600487. DOI:10.1002/mame.201600487

Song, L. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Misra, A. Tamerler, C. & Spencer, P. (2017). Probing the Neutralization Behavior of Zwitterionic Monomer-Containing Dental Adhesive. Dental Mater , 33(5), 564-574.

Abedin, R. Roughton, B. Ye, Q. Spencer, P. & Camarda, K. (2017). Computer-aided Molecular Design of Water Compatible Visible Photosensitizer for Dental Adhesive. Chemical Eng Sci, 159, 131-139.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. & Tamerler, C. B. (2016). Engineered Peptide for Adhesive/Dentin Interfacial Integrity. Academy of Dental Materials, Chicago, IL, October 2016.

Ye, Q. Song, L. Y., Ge, X. P., Misra, A. Tamerler, C. B., & Spencer, P. (2016). Novel Self-Strengthening Hybrid Dentin Adhesive Via Facile Visible-Light Irradiation Triple Polymerization. 10th World Biomaterials Congress 2016, Montreal, Canada, May 2016.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Yuca, E. & Tamerler, C. B. (2016). Peptide Engineered Adhesive/Dentin Interfacial Integrity. 10th World Biomaterials Congress 2016, Montreal, Canada, May 2016.

Song, L. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2016). Mimicking Nature: Self-strengthening Properties in a Dental Adhesive. Acta Biomaterialia, 35, 138-152.

Song, L. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Misra, A. Tamerler, C. & Spencer, P. (2016). Self-Strengthening Hybrid Dental Adhesive via Visible-light Irradiation Triple Polymerization. RSC Advances, 6(57), 52434-52447. DOI:10.1039/C6RA09933E

Song, L. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2016). Tris(trimethylsilyl)silane as a Co-Initiator for Dental Adhesive: Photo-Polymerization Kinetics and Dynamic Mechanical Property. Dental Materials, 32, 102-13.

VanOosten, S. K., Yuca, E. Karaca, B. T., Boone, K. Snead, M. L., Spencer, P. & Tamerler, C. (2016). Bio-Silver Nanoparticle Interface Offers Improved Cell Viability. Surface Innovations.

Tucker, J. K., McNiff, M. L., Ulapane, S. B., Spencer, P. Laurence, J. S., & Berrie, C. L. (2016). Mechanistic Investigations of MMP-8 Inhibition by Metal Abstraction Peptide (MAP). Biointerphases, 11(2), 021006-1 to 021006-8.

Esteves, S. R., Huhtala, M. F., Gomes, A. P., Ye, Q. Spencer, P. & Goncalves, S. E. (2016). Longitudinal Effect of Surface Treatments Modified by NaOCl-Induced Deproteinization and Nd: YAG Laser on Dentin Permeability. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 34(2), 68-75. DOI:10.1089/pho.2015.3977

Abedin, F. Ye, Q. Song, L. Ge, X. Camarda, K. & Spencer, P. (2016). Effect of Partition of Photo-Initiator Components and Addition of Iodonium Salt on the Photopolymerization of Phase-Separated Dental Adhesive. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 68(4), 1090-1099. DOI:10.1007/s11837-016-1816-2

Ge, X. Ye, Q. Song, L. Laurence, J. S., Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2016). Probing the Dual Function of a Novel Tertiary Amine Compound in Dentin Adhesive Formulations. Dental Materials. DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2015.12.003

Dixit, N. Spencer, P. & Laurence, J. S. (2015). Protein-Polymeric Materials Interaction: Mineralized Tissues Reconstruction. In M. Mishra (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials (Vol. 10, pp. 6808-6830). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Song, L. Ye, Q. Ge, X. & Spencer, P. (2015). Compositional Design and Optimization of Dentin Adhesive with Neutralization Capability. Journal of Dentistry, 43(9), 1132-9.

Abedin, F. Roughton, B. Spencer, P. Ye, Q. & Camarda, K. (2015). Computational Molecular Design of Water Compatible Dentin Adhesive System. Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 37, 2081–6.

Song, L., Ye, Q., Ge, X., Singh, V., Misra, A., Laurence, J. S., Berrie, C. L., & Spencer, P. (Eds.). (2015). Development of Methacrylate/Silorane Hybrid Monomer System: Relationship between Photopolymerization Behavior and Dynamic Mechanical Properties. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33435

Ge, X. Ye, Q. Song, L. Spencer, P. & Laurence, J. S. (2015). Effect of Crosslinking Density of Polymers and Chemical Structure of Amine-containing Monomers on the Neutralization Capacity of Dentin Adhesives. Dental Materials, 31, 1245-53.

Dixit, N. Settle, J. K., Ye, Q. Berrie, C. L., Spencer, P. & Laurence, J. S. (2015). Grafting MAP Peptide to Dental Polymer Inhibits MMP‐8 Activity. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 103(2), 324-31.

Misra, A. Parthasarathy, R. Singh, V. & Spencer, P. (2015). Micro-Poromechanics Model of Fluid-saturated Chemically Active Fibrous Media. ZAMM Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 95(2), 215-34.

Ge, X. Ye, Q. Song, L. Laurence, J. S., & Spencer, P. (2015). Synthesis and Evaluation of a Novel Co-Initiator for Dentin Adhesives: Polymerization Kinetics and Leachables. JOM, 67(4), 796-803.

Ge, X. Ye, Q. Song, L. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2015). The Influence of Water on Visible-Light Initiated Free-Radical/Cationic Ring-Opening Hybrid Polymerization of Methacrylate/Epoxy: Polymerization Kinetics, Crosslinking Structure and Dynamic Mechanical Properties. RSC Advances, 5, 77791-802.

Singh, V. Misra, A. Parthasarathy, R. Ye, Q. & Spencer, P. (2015). Viscoelastic Properties of Collagen-Adhesive Composites under Water Saturated and Dry Conditions. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A, 103A, 646-57.

Ge, X. Ye, Q. Song, L. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2015). Visible-light Initiated Free-Radical/Cationic Ring-Opening Hybrid Photopolymerization of Methacrylate/Epoxy: Polymerization Kinetics, Crosslinking Structure and Dynamic Mechanical Properties. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 216(8), 856-72.

Abedin, F. Ye, Q. Spencer, P. & Camarda, K. (2015). Computer-aided Molecular Design of Water Compatible Visible Light Photosensitizer for Dental Applications. AIChE Annual Meeting Salt Lake City, UT.

Abedin, F. Goncalves, S. E., Ye, Q. & Spencer, P. (2015). Light Intensity and Polymerization Kinetics of Hydrophilic- and Hydrophobic-rich Adhesive Phases. 47th Meeting of the Continental European Division of the International Association for Dental Research (CED-IADR) Annual Meeting Antalya, Turkey.

Abedin, F. Ye, Q. Camarda, K. & Spencer, P. (2015). Impact of Light Intensity on the Polymerization Kinetics and Network Structure of Model Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Methacrylate Based Dental Adhesive Resin. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33517.

Abedin, F. Roughton, B. Spencer, P. Ye, Q. & Camarda, K. (2015). Computational Molecular Design of Water Compatible Dentin Adhesive System. 12th PSE and 25th ESCAPE Meeting Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abedin, F. Roughton, B. Spencer, P. Ye, Q. & Camarda, K. (2015). Computational Molecular Design of Water Compatible Dentin Adhesive System. In 12th PSE and 25th ESCAPE Meeting Copenhagen, Denmark.

Ye, Q. Abedin, F. Good, H. Spencer, P. Parthasarathy, R. Tamerler, C. Misra, A. Laurence, J. S., & Berrie, C. L. (2015). Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Polymerizable Amine Co-Initiator for Dental Application: Evaluation of Polymerization Kinetics and Quantification of Leachables. Society for Biomaterials 2015 Annual Meeting Charlotte, NC.

Abedin, F. Ye, Q. Parthasarathy, R. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2015). Polymerization Behavior of Hydrophilic-rich Phase of Dentin Adhesive. Journal of Dental Research, 94(3), 500-7. DOI:10.1177/0022034514565646

Misra, A. Parthasarathy, R. Singh, V. & Spencer, P. (2015). Micro-poromechanics Model of Fluid Saturated Chemically Active Fibrous Media. ZAMM - Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 95(2), 215-34. DOI:10.1002/zamm.201300071

Ye, Q. Abedin, F. Good, H. Spencer, P. Parthasarathy, R. Tamerler, C. B., Misra, A. Laurence, J. S., & Berrie, C. (2014). Hydrophilic-rich Phase Mimic in Dental Adhesive: Polymerization- and Solvent-Induced Phase Separation. Society for Biomaterials 2014 Annual Meeting, April, Denver, CO.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Song, L. Y., Ge, X. P., Misra, A. Tamerler, C. B., Berrie, C. & Laurence, J. S. (2014). Interfacial Design of Dentin Adhesive with a Branched Carboxylic Acid Monomer. Society for Biomaterials 2014 Annual Meeting, April, Denver, CO.

Abedin, F. Goncalves, S. Ye, Q. Laurence, J. & Spencer, P. (2014). Polymerization Kinetics of Hydrophilic-rich Phase in Phase-Separated Dentin Adhesives. Academy of Dental Materials, Annual Meeting, October, Bologna, Italy.

Laurence, J. S., Nelson, B. Ye, Q. & Spencer, P. (2014). Characterization of Acid-Neutralizing Basic Monomers in Co-Solvent Systems by NMR. Int J Polymer Mater, 63, 361-7.

Abedin, F. Ye, Q. Good, H. J., Parthasarathy, R. & Spencer, P. (2014). Polymerization- and Solvent-Induced Phase Separation in Hydrophilic-rich Dentin Adhesive Mimic. Acta Biomaterialia, 10, 3038-3047.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Misra, A. Goncalves, S. E., & Laurence, J. S. (2014). Proteins, Pathogens, and Failure at the Composite/Tooth Interface. J Dent Res, 93(12), 1243-9.

Misra, A. Parthasarathy, B. Ye, Q. Singh, V. & Spencer, P. (2014). Swelling equilibrium of dentin adhesive polymers formed on the water-adhesive phase boundary: Experiments and micromechanical model. Acta Biomaterialia, 10(1), 330-342.

Song, L. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Misra, A. Lawrence, J. S., Berrie, C. L., & Spencer, P. (2014). Synthesis and evaluation of novel dental monomer with branched aromatic carboxylic acid group. J Biomed Mater Res Part B, 102(7), 1473-84.

Ge, X. Ye, Q. Song, L. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2014). Synthesis and evaluation of novel siloxane-methacrylate monomers used as dentin adhesives. Dental Mater, 30, 1073-87.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Park, J. Parthasarthy, R. Marangos, O. Misra, A. Bohaty, B. S., Singh, V. & Laurence, J. S. (2013). Dentin/adhesive interface in teeth. In S. Thomopoulos, G. Genin, & V. Birman (Eds.), Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology (pp. 133-151). New York: Springer.

Misra, A. Marangos, O. Parthasarathy, R. & Spencer, P. (2013). Micro-scale analysis of compositional and mechanical properties of primary tooth dentin using homotopic measurements. In . (Ed.), Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics (Vol. 4, pp. 131-141). Springer .

Abedin, F. Ye, Q. Spencer, P. Parthasarathy, R. Laurence, J. L., & Misra, A. (2013). Hydrophilic-rich Phase in Dentin Adhesive: Photo-polymerization and Critical Water Content. Abstract #1544, IADR/AADR/CADR 2013 Annual Meeting, March, Seattle, Washington.

Ye, Q. Abedin, F. Spencer, P. Parthasarathy, R. Misra, A. & Laurence, J. S. (2013). Photo-polymerization Kinetics of Hydrophilic-rich Phase Mimic in Dentin Adhesive. Society for Biomaterials 2013 Annual Meeting, April Boston, MA.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Parthasarathy, R. Singh, V. Misra, A. & Laurence, J. S. (2013). Structure/Property of model dentin adhesives exposed to wet environments. Soc for Biomaterials, April, Boston, MA.

Singh, V. Misra, A. Parthasarthy, R. Ye, Q. Park, J. & Spencer, P. (2013). Mechanical Properties of Methacrylate Based Model Dentin Adhesives: Effect of Loading Rate and Moisture Exposure. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part B, 101B, 1437-1443.

Misra, A. Parthasarthy, R. Singh, V. & Spencer, P. (2013). Micro-poromechanics model of fluid saturated chemically active fibrous media. Z. Angew. Math. Mech., 1-20.

Misra, A. Marangos, O. Parthasarthy, R. & Spencer, P. (2013). Micro-scale analysis of compositional and mechanical properties of dentin using homotopic measurements. Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics, Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics,(4), 131-141.

Ye, Q. Parthasarthy, R. Abedin, F. Laurence, J. S., Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2013). Multivariate Analysis of Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR/FTIR) Spectroscopic Data to Confirm Phase Partitioning in Methacrylate-based Dentin Adhesive. Appl Spect, 67(12), 1473-1478.

Misra, A. Parthasarthy, R. Singh, V. & Spencer, P. (2013). Poromechanics parameters of fluid-saturated chemically active fibrous media derived from a micromechanical approach. J Nanomechanics and Micromechanics, 3(4), 04013002. DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)NM.2153-5477.0000069

Bohaty, B. S., Ye, Q. Misra, A. Sene, F. & Spencer, P. (2013). Posterior Composite Restoration Update: Focus on Factors Influencing Form and Function. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry, 5, 33-42.

Ye, Q. Parthasarathy, R. Gonçalves, S. Park, J. G., Misra, A. Marangos, O. & Spencer, P. (2012). Aqueous Phase Properties of Model Dentin Adhesives Experiencing Phase Separation. 9th World Biomaterials Congress, June, Chengdu, China.

Gonçalves, S. Ye, Q. Parthasarathy, R. Park, J. G., & Spencer, P. (2012). Dentin Adhesive in Overwet Environment: Photoinitiator Composition and Concentration. International Association of Dental Research (IADR)/Latin American Region (LAR) 2012 Annual Meeting, June, Iguaçu Falls, Brazil.

Park, J. Ye, Q. Spencer, P. & Laurence, J. S. (2012). Determination of neutralization capacity and stability of a basic methacrylate monomer using NMR. International Journal of Polymeric Materials, 61(2), 144-153.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Park, J. Misra, A. Bohaty, B. S., Singh, V. Parthasarathy, R. Sene, F. Goncalves, S. & Laurence, J. S. (2012). Durable bonds at the adhesive/dentin interface: an impossible mission or simply a moving target? Braz Dent Sci, 15(1), 23-37.

Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Parthasarathy, R. Pamatmat, F. Misra, A. Laurence, J. S., Marangos, O. & Spencer, P. (2012). Quantitative analysis of aqueous phase composition of model dentin adhesives experiencing phase separation. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomaterials, 100B, 1086-1092.

Park, J. G., Ye, Q. Singh, V. Kieweg, S. L., Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2012). Synthesis and evaluation of novel dental monomer with branched aromatic carboxylic acid group. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomaterials, 100B, 569-576.

Parthasarathy, R. Misra, A. Park, J. Ye, Q. & Spencer, P. (2012). Diffusion coefficients of water and leachables in methacrylate-based crosslinked polymers using absorption experiments. J Mater Sci Mater Med, 23(5), 1157-1172.

Katz, J. L., Misra, A. Marangos, O. Ye, Q. & Spencer, P. (2011). Mechanics of Hard Tissues (Chapter 18) . In . Bronzino & . Petersen (Eds.), The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition. Taylor & Francis Group.

Singh, V. Misara, A. Marangos, O. Park, J. Ye, Q. Kieweg, S. & Spencer, P. (2011). Anomalous creep in model dentin adhesive under changing moisture conditions. J Dental Research 89: 1708, March, San Diego, CA (IADR/AADR).

Parthasarathy, R. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2011). Application of soft tissue micromechanics model to condylar cartilage. J Dental Research 89: 3610, March, San Diego, CA (IADR/AADR).

Marangos, O. Misra, A. Spencer, P. & Katz, J. L. (2011). Focused high frequency ultrasonic wate interaction with acid-etched dentin. J Dental Research 89: 1567, March, San Diego, CA (IADR/AADR).

Misra, A. Singh, V. Parthasarathy, R. Marangos, O. & Spencer, P. (2011). Mathematical model for anomalous creep in model dentin adhesives. J Dental Research 89: 574: March, San Diego, CA (IADR/AADR).

Ye, Q. Spencer, P. Parthasarathy, R. Park, J. G., Laurence, J. S., & Misra, A. (2011). Multivariate Spectral Analysis of Phase Partitioning in Methacrylate-based Dentin Adhesive. American Chemistry Society, Joint Regional (Midwest & Great Lakes) Meeting, October, Saint Louis, Missouri.

Park, J. Ye, Q. Chen, Z. Laurence, J. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2011). NMR study for neutralization and stability of basic monomer. J Dental Research 89: 1699, March, San Diego, CA (IADR/AADR).

Spencer, P. Park, J. Ye, Q. Singh, V. & Misra, A. (2011). Preparation and characterization of water compatible dentin adhesives. J Dental Research 89: 1707, March, San Diego, CA (IADR/AADR).

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Chen, Z. Misra, A. & Laurence, J. S. (2011). Spectroscopic characterization of structural and functional properties of dentin adhesive with buffering capability. Society for Biomaterials 2011 Annual Meeting, April, Orlando, Florida.

Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Misra, A. Parthasarathy, R. Singh, V. & Spencer, P. (2011). Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured Dental Polymers through Phase Dispersion Control. Society for Biomaterials 2011 Annual Meeting, April, Orlando, Florida.

Ye, Q. Park, J. Pamatmat, F. Parthasarathy, R. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2011). Water compatibility and phase diagram of model dentin adhesives. J Dental Research 89: 1700, March, San Diego, CA (IADR/AADR).

Pinzon, L. M., Powers, J. M., O’Keefe, K. L., Dusevich, V. Spencer, P. & Marshall, G. W. (2011). Effect of Mucoprotein on the Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Human Dentin. Odontology, 99(2), 119-128.

Singh, V. Misra, A. Marangos, O. Park, J. Ye, Q. Kieweg, S. L., & Spencer, P. (2011). Fatigue life prediction of dentin-adhesive interface using micromechanical stress analysis. Dent Mater, 27(9), e187-e195.

Ye, Q. Park, J. Laurence, J. S., Parthasarathy, R. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2011). Ternary phase diagram of model dentin adhesive exposed to over-wet environments. J Dent Res, 90(12), 1434-1438.

Park, J. Eslick, J. Ye, Q. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2011). The influence of chemical structure on the properties in methacrylate-based dentin adhesives. Dent Mater, 27, 1086-1093.

Marangos, O. Misra, A. Spencer, P. & Katz, J. L. (2011). Scanning acoustic microscopy investigation of frequency-dependent reflectance of acid-etched human dentin using homotopic measurements. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 58(3), 585-595.

Eslick, J. C., Shulda, S. M., Spencer, P. & Camarda, K. V. (2010). Optimization-based Approaches to Computational Molecular Design. In C. Adjiman & A. Galindo (Eds.), Process Systems Engineering: Vol. 6 Molecular Systems Engineering. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VHC.

Singh, V. Misra, A. Marangos, O. Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Eslick, J. & Spencer, P. (2010). Fatigue Behavior of Dentin Adhesives under Dry and Wet Conditions. Abstract #143, Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 89, Special Issue A, Washington DC, AADR meeting.

Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Misra, A. Nalvarte, E. & Spencer, P. (2010). Photoinitiator Effect in Degradation Studies of Model Dentin Adhesives. Soc for Biomaterials, Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA.

Park, J. G., Eslick, J. Davis, C. Secka, M. Ye, Q. Camarda, K. Kieweg, S. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2010). Structure-Property Relationships in Dentin Adhesives. Abstract #90, Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 89, Special Issue A. Washington DC, AADR meeting.

Guo, X. Yao, X. Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2010). Water Gradients in Dentin/Adhesive Interface by Confocal Raman Microscopy. XXII International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Boston, MA.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Park, J. Topp, E. M., Misra, A. Marangos, O. Wang, Y. Bohaty, B. S., Singh, V. Sene, F. Eslick, J. Camarda, K. & Katz, J. L. (2010). Adhesive/Dentin Interface: The Weak Link in the Composite Restoration. Annals of Biomed Eng, 38(6), 1989-2003.

Pinzon, L. M., Oguri, M. O’Keefe, K. L., Dusevish, V. Spencer, P. Powers, J. & Marshall, G. W. (2010). Bond Strength of Adhesives to Dentin Contaminated with Smoker's Saliva. Odontology, 98(1), 37-43.

Park, J. Ye, Q. Topp, E. M., Kieweg, S. L., & Spencer, P. (2010). Effect of Photoinitiator System and Water Content on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of a Light-Cured bisGMA/HEMA Dental Resin. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 93(4), 1245-1251.

Singh, V. Misra, A. Marangos, O. Park, J. Ye, Q. Kieweg, S. & Spencer, P. (2010). Viscoelastic and fatigue properties of model methacrylate based dentin adhesives. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 95B, 283-290.

Park, J. Ye, Q. Topp, E. M., Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2009). Effect of photoinitiators on dynamic mechanical properties of dentin adhesives. J Dent Res Spec Issue 88A:3255, April, Miami FL, IADR/AADR.

Singh, V. Marangos, O. Misra, A. Spencer, P. & Katz, J. L. (2009). Fatigue life prediction of d-a interface using micromechanical stress analysis. J Dent Res Spec Issue 88A:1656, April, Miami, FL, IADR/AADR.

Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Misra, A. Spencer, P. & Topp, E. M. (2009). Structural and polymerization characteristics of hydroxyapatite-impregnated organophosphate dental resin. Society for Biomaterials 2009 Symposium, April, San Antonio, TX.

Spencer, P. Park, J. Ye, Q. Topp, E. M., Misra, A. Lee, C. H., Kostoryz, E. L., & Wang, Y. (2009). Thermomechanical behavior, biodegradation and ester linkages in novel dentin adhesives. J Dent Res Spec Issue 88A:3255, April, Miami FL, IADR/AADR.

Misra, A. Marangos, O. Spencer, P. Bohaty, B. & Katz, J. L. (2009). Two-Level homogenization model for sound and caries affected dentin elasticity. J Dent Res Spec Issue 88A:3255, April, Miami FL, IADR/AADR.

Ye, Q. Park, J. Spencer, P. Topp, E. M., Singh, V. & Misra, A. (2009). Water absorption and thermal mechanical properties of model dentin adhesives. J Dent Res Spec Issue 88A:3255, April, Miami FL, IADR/AADR.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Park, J. Topp, E. M., Yao, X. Nalvarte, E. L., Wang, Y. Bohaty, B. S., & Misra, A. (2009). Water absorption and wetting properties of dentin adhesives with a urethane-based branched methacrylate. Society for Biomaterials 2009 Symposium, April, San Antonio, TX.

Wang, Y. Guo, X. Yao, X. & Spencer, P. (2009). Water gradients in dentin/adhesive interface by confocal Raman microscopy. J Dent Res Special Issue 88A:1520, April, Miami FL, IADR/AADR.

Eslick, J. C., Ye, Q. Park, J. Topp, E. M., Spencer, P. & Camarda, K. V. (2009). A Computational Molecular Design Framework for Crosslinked Polymer Networks. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 33, 954-963.

Park, J. G., Ye, Q. Topp, E. M., Lee, C. H., Kostoryz, E. L., Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2009). Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Esterase Degradation of Dentin Adhesives Containing a Branched Methacrylate. J Biomed Mater Res B: Appl Biomater, 91B, 61-70.

Guo, X. Peng, Z. Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2009). Effect of Initiator on Photopolymerization of Acidic, Aqueous Dental Model Adhesives. J Biomed Materials Res, Part A, 90(4), 1120-1127.

Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Topp, E. & Spencer, P. (2009). Effect of Photo-Initiators on the In Vitro Performance of a Dentin Adhesive Exposed to Simulated Oral Environment. Dental Mater, 25(4), 452-458.

Kostoryz, E. L., Dharmala, K. Ye, Q. Wang, Y. Huber, J. Park, J. G., Snider, G. Katz, J. L., & Spencer, P. (2009). Enzymatic biodegradation of HEMA/BisGMA adhesives formulated with different water content. J Biomed Mater Res B: Appl Biomater, 88B, 394-401.

Park, J. G., Ye, Q. Topp, E. M., & Spencer, P. (2009). Enzyme-catalyzed Hydrolysis of Dentin Adhesives Containing a New Urethane-Based Trimethacrylate Monomer. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 91B, 562-571.

Benavides, E. Bilgen, M. Al-Hafez, B. Alrefae, T. Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2009). High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Porcine Temporomandibular Joint Disc. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 38, 148-155.

Ye, Q. Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2009). Nanophase Separation of Polymers Exposed to Simulated Bonding Conditions. J Biomed Mater Res B: Appl Biomater, 88B, 339-348.

Marangos, O. Misra, A. Spencer, P. Bohaty, B. & Katz, J. L. (2009). Physico-mechanical Properties Determination using Microscale Homotopic Measurement: Application to Sound and Caries Affected Primary Tooth Dentin. Acta Biomaterialia, 5, 1338-1348.

Park, J. G., Ye, Q. Topp, E. M., Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2009). Water Sorption and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Dentin Adhesives with a Urethane-Based Multifunctional Methacrylate Monomer. Dent Mater, 25, 1569-1575.

Ye, Q. Spencer, P. Park, J. G., Misra, A. Topp, E. M., & Wang, Y. (2008). Correlation between Photo-Polymerization behavior and Microstructure of Heterogeneous Model Dentin Adhesive. Society for Biomaterials 2008 Symposium- Translation Biomaterials Research, September, Atlanta, Georgia.

Marangos, O. Misra, A. Spencer, P. Sohn, M. & Wang, H. (2008). Effect of Acid Etching on Dentin Micromechanical Properties. Abstract #0068, AADR Meeting, April.

Wang, Y. Yao, X. Benghanem, A. Sultan, H. & Spencer, P. (2008). Effect of solvent content on micro-scale mechanics/chemistry of adhesive/dentin interface. Abstract #0069, AADR Meeting, April.

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Misra, A. Topp, E. M., Kostoryz, E. L., & Wang, Y. (2008). Effect of water on photopolymerization and properties of dentin adhesives with branched methacrylate. Society for Biomaterials 2008 Symposium- Translation Biomaterials Research, September, Atlanta, Georgia.

Park, J. G., Ye, Q. Davis, H. Davydova, N. Topp, E. Kostoryz, E. L., Yao, X. Lee, C. H., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2008). Enzymatic degradation of dentin adhesives containing new urethane-linked trimethacrylate monomer. Abstract #0861, AADR Meeting, April.

Yao, X. Whitt, J. C., Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2008). FTIR imaging studies on early dental caries with/without polarization. Abstract #0422, AADR Meeting, April.

Misra, A. Marangos, O. Spencer, P. Bohaty, B. Walker, M. P., & Katz, J. L. (2008). Micro-scale Compositional and Mechanical Analysis of Primary Dentin. Abstract #0067, AADR Meeting, April.

Misra, A. Singh, V. Spencer, P. & Guess, T. (2008). Microstructure and Composition Based Constitutive Relationships for Meniscus/Cartilage. SIAM Life Sciences 08 Conference, Montreal, Canada, August 6-8.

Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Misra, A. Marangos, O. Eslick, J. Einhelig, J. Wang, Y. Yao, X. M., & Spencer, P. (2008). Nano-scale Heterogeneity of Dentin Adhesive Following Environmental Stress. Abstract #1100, AADR Meeting, April.

Calabria, M. P., Pereira, J. C., Spencer, P. Atta, M. T., Mattos, M. & Costa, L. C. (2008). SEM Analysis of Dentin Intratubular Structures in Non-Carious Cervical Lesions. Abstract #2079, IADR Meeting, July.

Spencer, P. Park, J. G., Ye, Q. Topp, E. Yao, X. Lee, C. H., Kostoryz, E. L., Misra, A. & Wang, Y. (2008). Synthesis and Characterization of New Methacrylate Monomers for Dentin Adhesives. Abstract #0126, AADR Meeting, April.

Parthasarathy, R. Thiagarajan, G. Yao, X. Wang, Y. P., Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2008). Application of Multivariate Spectral Analyses in Micro-Raman Imaging to Unveil Structure/Chemical Features of the Adhesive/Dentin Interface. J Biomed Optics, 13(1), 014020.

Guo, X. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Ye, Q. & Yao, X. (2008). Effects of Water Content and Initiator Composition on Photopolymerization of a Model BisGMA/HEMA Resin. Dent Mater, 24(6), 824-831.

Ye, Q. Park, J. G., Topp, E. Wang, Y. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2008). In Vitro Performance of Nano-Heterogeneous Dentin Adhesive. J Dent Res, 87(9), 829-833.

Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Misra, A. Marangos, O. & Friis, L. (2008). On the Anisotropic Elastic Properties of Wood. J Materials Science, 43(1), 139-145.

Park, J. G., Ye, Q. Topp, E. M., Kostoryz, E. Wang, Y. Kieweg, S. L., & Spencer, P. (2008). Preparation and Properties of Novel Dentin Adhesives with Esterase Resistance. J Appl Polymer Sci, 107, 3588-3597.

Athar, A. Angelolopoulos, C. Katz, J. Williams, K. & Spencer, P. (2008). Radiographic endodontic working length estimation: comparison of three digital image receptors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 106(4), 604-8.

Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2007). Micro-Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications in Dental Research. In A. Kishen & A. Asundi (Eds.), Fundamentals and Applications of Biophotonics in Dentistry (Vol. 4, pp. 209-243). Chapter 8: Imperial College Press.

Benavides, E. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Marangos, O. A., Katz, J. L., Bilgen, M. Carey, G. & Nussenbaum, F. (2007). Collagen Micro-structural Organization Affects Micro-Mechanical Properties of the TMJ Disc. J Dent Res 86(Spec A):1892 (IADR/AADR).

Eslick, J. Ye, Q. Park, J. Topp, E. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Camarda, K. (2007). Development of Quantitative Structure-Property Relations for Crosslinked Polymethacrylate Resins for Dental Applications. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Annual Meeting.

Guo, X. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Ye, Q. & Yao, X. (2007). Effects of Solubility Enhancer on Penetration into Wet Demineralized Dentin. J Dent Res 86(spec A):1521 (IADR/AADR).

Kostoryz, E. L., Dharmala, K. Ye, Q. Wang, Y. Huber, J. Park, J. G., Snider, G. & Spencer, P. (2007). Enzymatic Biodegradation of BisGMA/HEMA Adhesive Formulated with Different Water Content. J Dent Res 86(Spec A):1390 (IADR/AADR).

Marangos, O. Misra, A. Spencer, P. Bohaty, B. Wang, Y. DeBruijn, M. Kalayeh, M. M., & Katz, J. L. (2007). Micromechanical Imaging of Caries Affected Dentin. J Dent Res 86(Spec A):0019 (IADR/AADR).

Wang, Y. Yao, X. Spencer, P. Kalayeh, M. M., DeBruijn, M. Misra, A. Walker, M. P., Katz, J. L., & Bohaty, B. (2007). Monomer/Mineral Distribution in the Adhesive/Caries-Affected Dentin Interface. J Dent Res 86(Spec A):2446 (IADR/AADR).

Misra, A. Spencer, P. Marangos, O. Dharmala, R. Bohaty, B. Walker, M. P., Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2007). Probabilistic Analysis of d/a Interfaces Based upon Micromechanical FE Model. J Dent Res 86(Spec A):1533 (IADR/AADR).

Yao, X. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Bohaty, B. Webb, R. P., Becker, A. E., & Misra, A. (2007). Quantitative Chemical and Mechanical Imaging of Carious Dentin. J Dent Res 86(Spec A):1702 (IADR/AADR).

Walker, M. P., Williams, K. B., Wichman, B. D., Rondeau, M. & Spencer, P. (2007). Risk Factors Associated with Post-radiation Dental Lesion Severity. J Dent Res 86 (Spec A):1321 (IADR/AADR).

Spencer, P. Ye, Q. Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., Misra, A. Marangos, O. Kostoryz, E. L., Melander, J. R., & Gorman, N. (2007). Structure/Property Relationships in Environmentally Stressed Dentin Adhesives. J Dent Res 86(Spec A):0117 (IADR/AADR).

Ye, Q. Wang, Y. Melander, J. R., Gorman, N. Marangos, O. Misra, A. & Spencer, P. (2007). Water-compatible Photoinitiators and Nano-Phase Separated Dentin Adhesives. J Dent Res 86(Spec A):2009 (IADR/AADR).

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2007). Dentin. In M. Akay (Ed.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ye, Q. Wang, Y. Williams, K. & Spencer, P. (2007). Characterization of photopolymerization of dentin adhesives as a function of light source and irradiance. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 80(2), 440-446.

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Walker, M. P. (2007). Chemical profile of adhesive/caries-affected dentin interfaces using Raman microspectroscopy. J Biomed Mater Res A, 81(2), 279-286.

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Yao, X. & Bohaty, B. (2007). Effect of solvent content on resin hybridization in wet dentin bonding. J. Biomed Mater Res. A, 82, 975-983.

Guo, X. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Ye, Q. Yao, X. & Williams, K. (2007). Effects of a Solubility Enhancer on Penetration of Hydrophobic Component in Model Adhesives into Wet Demineralized Dentin. Dental Mater, 23, 1473-1481.

Castro, V. M., Katz, J. O., Hardman, P. K., Glaros, A. G., & Spencer, P. (2007). In vitro comparison of conventional film and direct digital imaging in the detection of approximal caries. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 36, 138-142.

Katz, J. L., Misra, A. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Bumrerraj, S. Nomura, T. Eppell, S. J., & Tabib-Azar, M. (2007). Multiscale Mechanics of Hierarchical Structure/Property Relationships in Calcified Tissues and Tissue/Material Interfaces. Mat Sci Eng C-Bio S, 27(3), 450-468.

Ye, Q. Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2007). Nanoscale patterning in crosslinked methacrylate copolymer networks: an atomic force microscopy study. J Appl Polym Sci, 106, 3843-3851.

Ye, Q. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Misra, A. (2007). Relationship of Solvent to the Photopolymerization Process, Properties and Structure in Model Dentin Adhesives. J Biomed Mater Res A, 80(2), 342-350.

Walker, M. P., Wichman, B. Williams, K. B., Rondeau, M. & Spencer, P. (2007). Risk Factors associated with post-radiation dental lesions. J Invest Med, 55(2), 16.

Thiagarajan, G. Deshmukh, K. Wang, Y. Misra, A. Katz, J. L., & Spencer, P. (2007). Nano Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Biocomposites Using Multi-Scale (Virtual Internal Bond) Finite Element Models. J Biomed Mater Res, 83A(2), 332-344.

Wang, Y. P., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). A differential wavelet-based noise reduction approach to improve the clustering of hyperspectral Raman imaging data. Proceedings of Third IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 988-991.

Wang, Y. P., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). A differential wavelet-based noise reduction approach to improve the clustering of hyperspectral Raman imaging data. Third IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, April 6-9, Arlington, Virginia.

Katz, J. L., Marangos, O. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Misra, A. (2006). Calibration curves for nonlinear quantification of tissue elasticity with scanning acoustic microscopy. Fifth International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Snowbird, Utah, USA October 8–11.

Katz, J. L., Misra, A. Marangos, O. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Adany, P. & Walker, J. (2006). Damage initiation at the dentin/adhesive interface. J. Dent Res. 85:0165 (AADR).

Misra, A. Spencer, P. Marangos, O. Wang, Y. Walker, M. & Katz, J. L. (2006). Dentinal Matrix Elasticity: Micromechanical Analysis. Abstract Proceedings of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, St. Louis, MO, February.

Benavides, E. Spencer, P. Bilgen, M. Al-Hafez, B. Misra, A. Wang, Y. Katz, J. L., Weimer, K. A., & Mcnutt, K. (2006). Diffusion tensor MRI of the TMJ disc. J. Dent. Res. 85:0715 Special Issue, (AADR).

Bohaty, B. Yao, X. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Macarthur, R. & Fata, A. (2006). Effect of solvent content on resin hybridization in dentin bonding. J. Dent Res. 85:1578 Special Issue (AADR).

Yao, X. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Gatti, R. Gleeson, E. Bohaty, B. & Ye, Q. (2006). FTIR microscopic imaging of carious and normal dentin substrates. J. Dent. Res. 85:0018 Special Issue (AADR).

Marangos, O. Misra, A. Katz, J. L., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). Micromechanical property quantification using scanning acoustic microscope. The annual Society for Experimental Mechanics Conference and Exposition, June 4-7, St. Louis, MO.

Marangos, O. Katz, J. L., Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Misra, A. (2006). Micromechanical property quantification using scanning acoustic microscopy. the annual Society for Experimental Mechanics Conference and Exposition, June 4-7, Saint Louis, MO.

Pinzon, L. M., Dusevich, V. O'Keefe, K. L., Spencer, P. & Powers, J. M. (2006). Mucoprotein affects bond strength of composites to human dentin. J. Dental Res. 85:29 Special Issue (AADR).

Misra, A. Spencer, P. Marangos, O. Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., & Katz, J. L. (2006). Multi-scale analysis of dentinal matrix micromechanical properties. J. Dent. Res. 85:0164 Special Issue (AADR).

Katz, J. L., Thiagarajan, G. Deshmukh, K. P., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). Nano finite element modeling of mineralized collagen fibril mechanical behavior. J. Dent. Res. 85: Special Issue 2, (AADR)
.

Thiagarajan, G. Deshmukh, K. P., Wang, Y. Katz, J. L., & Spencer, P. (2006). Nano finite element modeling of the mechanical behavior of biocomposites using multi-scale (virtual internal bond) finite element models. 15th U.S. National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Boulder, CO, June 25-30.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Ye, Q. Misra, A. Marangos, O. Phillips, J. Parnell, R. & Katz, J. L. (2006). Optimization of Photo-initiators in Water-compatible Dentin Adhesive. J. Dent. Res 85:1577 Special Issue (AADR).

Walker, M. P., Williams, K. B., Dockter, K. McMillen, S. & Spencer, P. (2006). Post-radiation dental lesion index development. J. Dent. Res. 85:1993 Special Issue (AADR).

Marangos, O. Misra, A. Katz, J. L., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). Quantitative Acoustic Microscopy for Dentin Elasticity: Calibration Method. Abstract Proceedings of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, St. Louis, MO, February.

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Yao, X. M., Misra, A. & Katz, J. L. (2006). Quantitative characterization of demineralized dentin in its natural wet state. J. Dent. Res. 85:0166 Special Issue, (AADR).

Thiagarajan, G. Deshmukh, K. P., Wang, Y. Katz, J. L., & Spencer, P. (2006). Scaling and quasi-static loading issues in nano finite element modeling using multi-scale virtual internal bond using explicit finite elements. 15th U.S. National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Boulder, CO, June 25-30.

Katz, J. L., Misra, A. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Marangos, O. (2006). Scanning acoustic microscopy studies of cortical and trabecular bone in the femur and mandible. The 4th Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 28 – December 2.

Ye, Q. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Parnell, R. Phillips, J. Marangos, O. & Misra, A. (2006). Structure/mechanics of water compatible adhesive for dentistry. J. Dent. Res. 85:0292 Special Issue, (AADR).

Katz, J. L., Marangos, O. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Misra, A. (2006). Time/frequency domain calibration curves for quantification of tissue elasticity with scanning acoustic microscopy . 31st International Symposium on ultrasonic Imaging and Tissue Characterization, May 24-26, Washington DC.

Marangos, O. Misra, A. Katz, J. L., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). Time/frequency domain quantification of dentin elasticity with scanning acoustic microscopy. J. Dent. Res. 85:0291 Special Issue (AADR).

Ye, Q. Sene, F. Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). Water-compatible Photoinitiators: Impact on Adhesive Structure and Properties. Transactions of Academy of Dental Materials, 20:146. Annual Meeting of the Academy of Dental Materials, Sao Paulo, Brazil, October 23-25.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Bohaty, B. Sene, F. Katz, J. L., & Misra, A. (2006). “Kissing Bonds” and Dentin/Adhesive Interfacial Chemomechanics. Proceedings of Conference on “Adhesion, Ceramics and Bleaching-a critical evaluation”. Transactions of Academy of Dental Materials, 20: 27-40.

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Hager, C. & Bohaty, B. (2006). Comparison of Interfacial Characteristics of Adhesive Bonding to Superficial versus Deep Dentin Using SEM and Staining Techniques. J. Dent., 34(1), 26 - 34 .

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Yao, X. & Ye, Q. (2006). Effect of Co-Initiator and Water on the Photoreactivity and Photopolymerization of HEMA/Camphoroquinone-Based Reactant Mixtures. J Biomed Mater Res A, 78(4), 721-728.

Wang, Y. P., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). Fuzzy clustering of Raman spectral imaging data with a wavelet-based noise reduction approach. Appl. Spec., 60(7), 826-832.

Haj-Ali, R. Walker, M. P., Williams, K. Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2006). Histomorphologic Characterization of Non-carious and Caries-Affected Dentin/ Adhesive Interfaces. J Prosthodont, 15(2), 82-88.

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Yao, X. (2006). Micro-Raman Imaging Analysis of Monomer/Mineral Distribution in Intertubular Region of Adhesive/Dentin Interfaces. J Biomed Optics, 11(2), 024005-1 to 024005-7.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Bohaty, B. (2006). Interfacial Chemistry of Moisture-Aged Class II Composite Restorations. J Biomed Mater Res B: Appl Biomater, 77(2), 234-240.

Katz, J. L., Wang, Y. Bumrerraj, S. Nomura, T. Misra, A. Eppell, S. J., Tabib-Azar, M. & Spencer, P. (2005). Functional Imaging of the Hierarchical Structure/Property Relationships in Bone, Dentin and the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. In H. S. Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of Nanostructured Biomaterials and Their Applications in Nanobiotechnology (Vol. 1, pp. 1-34). Stevenson Ranch, CA: American Scientific Publishers.

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Katz, J. L., Misra, A. & Mao, X. M. (2005). Acoustic/chemical imaging of the adhesive/dentin interface. Poster presented at Abstracts of 30th Annual Meeting of Society of Biomaterials, Memphis, TN, April 27-30.

Misra, A. Lakkup, P. Marangos, O. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2005). Anisotropic Elasticity of Dentin: Micromechanical Considerations. J. Dental Res. 84:3352, Special Issue,(IADR/AADR).

Gaur, A. Pinzon, L. M., Oguri, M. O'Keefe, K. L., Dusevich, V. Spencer, P. & Powers, J. M. (2005). Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Dentin Contaminated with Blood. J. Dental Res. 84:460, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Bohaty, B. Gleeson, E. Wang, Y. Fricke, B. Spencer, P. & Katz, J. L. (2005). Characterization of the Primary Tooth D/A Interface Using Complementary Techniques. J. Dental Res. 84:521, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Katz, J. L., Walker, M. P., Misra, A. Ye, Q. & Yao, X. M. (2005). Chemical/Acoustic Imaging of Caries-Affected Dentin Bonding Substrates. J. Dental Res. 84:1454, Special Issue,(IADR/AADR).

Lopez, C. Cocjin, E. Haynes, J. Bohaty, B. Williams, K. & Spencer, P. (2005). Community Service and Pediatric Dental Education: A 15-Year Review of Treatment Trend. Caries Res 39(4): 292, Poster presentation at ORCA in Indianapolis. July 6-9.

Sene, F. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Pereira, J. C. (2005). Comparative Analysis of In-vivo/In-vitro One-Bottle Bonding System Interfaces. J. Dental Res. 84:518, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Reavley, B. Yao, X. M., Wang, Y. Ye, Q. Spencer, P. & Bohaty, B. (2005). Effect of Wet/Dry Bonding on Collagen Collapse With/Without Ferric Chloride. J. Dental Res. 84:504, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Katz, J. L., Kinney, J. H., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Fricke, B. Walker, M. & Friis, E. A. (2005). Elastic Anisotropy of Hard Tissues and Apatites. 51st Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, February 20-23, Abstract #687 .

Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Fricke, B. Friis, E. Kinney, J. H., & Walker, M. P. (2005). Elastic Anisotropy of Human Bone, Dentin and Apatites. Joint ASME/ASCE/SES Conference on Mechanics and Materials, Abstract #724, June.

Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Fricke, B. Friis, E. Kinney, J. H., Walker, M. P., Misra, A. & Marangos, O. (2005). Elastic Anisotropy of Human Dentin. J. Dental Res. 84: 3353, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Ye, Q. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., Katz, J. L., & Bohaty, B. (2005). Kinetics of Photo-Polymerization of Dental Adhesives: Light Source and Intensity. J. Dental Res. 84:1819, Special Issue,(IADR/AADR).

Misra, A. Spencer, P. Marangos, O. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2005). Micromechanical Analysis of Dentin Elastic Anisotropy. Joint ASME/ASCE/SES Conference on Mechanics and Materials, Abstract #726, June.

Katz, J. L., Misra, A. Spencer, P. Marangos, O. & Laku, P. (2005). Micromechanical Analysis of Dentin Elastic Anisotropy. 30th International Symposium on Ultrasonic Imaging and Tissue Characterization, May 25-27, Arlington, VA.

Benavides, E. Spencer, P. Katz, J. L., Fricke, B. Wang, Y. Bilgen, M. & Gleeson, E. (2005). Micromechanics of the Porcine TMJ Using Scanning Acoustic Microscopy. J. Dental Res. 84:1390, Special Issue,(IADR/AADR).

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Katz, J. L., Misra, A. & Marangos, O. (2005). Physicochemical and Mechanical Characterization of the Adhesive/Dentin Interface. Joint ASME/ASCE/SES Conference on Mechanics and Materials, Abstract #725, June.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Ye, Q. Walker, M. P., Wang, Y. Katz, J. L., & Misra, A. (2005). Relationship of Photopolymerization Processes, Structure and Properties in Dentin Adhesives . J. Dental Res. 84:2686, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Pinzon, L. M., Oguri, M. O'Keefe, K. L., Dusevich, V. Spencer, P. & Powers, J. M. (2005). Saliva Contamination and Self-etching Adhesive Bond Strength to Human Dentin. J. Dental Res. 84:456, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Misra, A. Marangos, O. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2005). Stress/Strain Fields in D/A Interface: Effect of Adhesive Infiltration. J. Dental Res. 84:456, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Hilton, H. H., Thiagarajan, G. Walker, M. P., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2005). Structural Integrity and Failure Probabilities of Denture Bonding Interfaces. International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials & Tissues, ICMOBT-05.

Benavides, E. Spencer, P. Katz, J. L., Fricke, B. Wang, Y. Bilgen, M. & Gleeson, E. (2005). Structure and Property Characterization of the Temporomandibular Joint Disc. Poster presented at Annual Kansas City Area Life Sciences Research Day, 158.

Lopez, C. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Ye, Q. & Yao, Z. (2005). Structure/Property Imaging of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. Poster presented at Composites at Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Canada, October, 31.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2005). Continuing Etching of an All-in-One Adhesive in Wet Dentin Tubules. J Dental Res, 84(4), 350-354.

Katz, J. L., Kinney, J. H., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Fricke, B. Walker, M. P., & Friis, E. A. (2005). Elastic Anisotropy of Bone and Dentitional Tissues. J Mater Sci, Mater Med, 16(9), 803-806.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2005). Evaluation of the Interface between One-Bottle Adhesive Systems and Dentin by Goldner's Trichrome Stain. Am J Dent, 18(1), 66-72.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2005). Interfacial Chemistry of Class II Composite Restorations: Structure Analysis. J Biomed Mater Res A, 75(3), 580-587.

Misra, A. Spencer, P. Marangos, O. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2005). Parametric Study of the Effect of Phase Anisotropy on the Micromechanical Behavior of Dentin/Adhesive Interfaces. J R Soc Interface, 2(3), 145-157.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Katz, J. L., & Misra, A. (2005). Physicochemical Interactions at the Dentin/Adhesive Interface Using FTIR Chemical Imaging. J Biomed Optics, 10(3), 031104-1 to 031104-11.

Bohaty, B. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Hai-Ali, R. (2004). Adhesive Hybridization in Caries-Free,-Affected and -Infected Primary Molars. J. Dental Res. 83: 487, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR meeting).

Misra, A. Marangos, O. Spencer, P. Katz, J. L., & Wang, Y. (2004). Anisotropy and Adhesive Penetration Effects on D/A Interfacial Micromechanics. J. Dental Res. 83: 31, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR meeting).

Haj-Ali, R. Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., Bohaty, B. Williams, K. & Spencer, P. (2004). Hydrophobic/ Hydrophilic Adhesive Bonding to Caries-Affected Dentin. J. Dental Res. 83: 1353, Special Issue,(IADR/AADR meeting).

Misra, A. Spencer, P. Lakku, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2004). Micromechanics Model for Cohesive Materials. Proceedings of the International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation (ICCMS-04), Kanpur, India, p. 459-466, December.

Walker, M. P., Petrie, C. S., Haj-Ali, R. Dumas, C. Spencer, P. & Williams, K. (2004). Moisture Effect on Polyether and Vinyl Polysiloxane Dimensional Accuracy and Detail Reproduction. J Dental Res 83:431, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR).

Walker, M. P., Petrie, C. Haj-Ali, R. Spencer, P. Dumas, C. & Williams, K. (2004). Moisture Effect on Polyether and Vinylpolysiloxane Accuracy and Detail Reproduction. J. Dental Res. 83:431, Special Issue (IADR/AADR).

Katz, J. L., Kinney, J. H., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Fricke, B. & Walker, M. P. (2004). On the Transverse Anisotropy of Human and Bovine Calcified Tissues. Third International Conference on Ultrasonic Measurements and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Oct 17-20, Windermere, UK.

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Katz, J. L. (2004). Photoreactivity and Photopolymerization of HEMA Formulated with Different Initiators. J. Dental Res. 83: 1356, Special Issue,(IADR/AADR meeting).

Katz, J. L., Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Misra, A. (2004). Physicochemical Interactions at Interfaces Between Self-Etch Adhesives and Dentin. J. Dental Res. 83: 30, Special Issue (IADR/AADR meeting).

Benavides, E. Spencer, P. Glaros, A. Katz, J. L., Katz, J. O., Bilgen, M. MCiff, T. Fischer, K. J., & Wang, Y. (2004). Qualitative Characterization of the TMJ Disc Utilizing 9.4 Tesla MRI. J. Dental Res. 83:142, Special Issue, (IADR/AADR meeting).

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2004). Tubule Density and Smear Layer: Effect on Demineralization and Penetration. J. Dental Res. 83: 1355, Special Issue,(IADR/AADR meeting).

Lawrence, K. J., Ambrose, C. G., McMillin, C. R., & Spencer, P. (2004). Orthopedic Biomaterials. In G. E. Wnek & G. L. Bowlin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (pp. 1160-1171). New York: Marcel Decker.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2004). Effect of Acid Etching Time and Technique on Interfacial Characteristics of the Adhesive-Dentin Bond Using Differential Staining. Eur J Oral Sci, 112(3), 293-299.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2004). Exploring the Nature of Acid-Resistant Hybrid Layer with Wet Bonding. Oper Dent, 29(6), 650-655.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2004). Identification of Collagen Encapsulation at the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. J Adh Dent, 6(2), 91-95.

Purk, J. H., Dusevich, V. Glaros, A. Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (2004). In-vivo vs. in-vitro microtensile bond strength of axial vs. gingival cavity walls in class II composite resin restorations. JADA, 135, 185-193.

Misra, A. Spencer, P. Marangos, O. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2004). Micromechanical Analysis of Dentin/Adhesive Interface Using Finite Element Method. J Biomed Mater Res B: Appl Biomater, 70(1), 56-65.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2004). Overestimating Hybrid Layer Quality in Polished Adhesive/Dentin Interfaces. J Biomed Mater Res A, 68(4), 735-746.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2004). Physicochemical Interactions at the Interfaces Between Self-Etch Adhesive Systems and Dentin. J Dent, 32(7), 567-79.

Spencer, P. Katz, J. L., Tabib-Azar, M. Wang, Y. Wagh, A. & Nomura, T. (2003). Hyperspectral Analysis of Collagen Infused with BisGMA-Based Polymeric Adhesive. In M. J. Yaszemski, D. J. Trantolo, K. U. Lewandrowski, V. Hasirci, D. E. Altobelli, & D. L. Wise (Eds.), Tissue Engineering and Novel Delivery Systems (pp. 599-632). New York: Marcel Decker.

Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Nomura, T. & Tabib-Azar, M. (2003). Analysis of micro-(chemical, elastic, electrical) structure/properties relationships in dentin collagen infused with Bis-GMA-based polymeric adhesive. Abstract 1273. Internal Association of Dental Research, Goteborg, Sweden.

Walker, M. P., Spencer, P. Eick, J. D., Covey, D. A., Shaver, A. & Simetich, B. (2003). Characterization of filled, polymeric dental materials under dynamic mechanical testing conditions. Abstract #827, AADR Meeting, March.

Hung, T. Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2003). Class II composite/dentin interfacial structure under simulated oral environment. Abstract #594, AADR Meeting, March.

Katz, J. L., Wang, Y. Hein, H. J., & Spencer, P. (2003). Continued Scanning Acoustic Microscopy and Ultrasonic Wave Propagation for Imaging and Measurements of Connective Tissue Properties. Second International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity, Corpus Christi, TX, October.

Bohaty, B. Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2003). Dentin-Adhesive Interface in Healthy and Caries Affected Primary Molars. Pediatric Dent 25(2):171, March 2003. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2003). Evaluation of acid-resistant Resin-Infiltrated Dentin layer with Wet Bonding. Abstract #590, AADR Meeting, March.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2003). Evaluation of Resin-Infiltrated Dentin Layer with Wet Bonding. Second Annual Kansas City Life Sciences Research Day, PS199, Kansas City, MO, March 27.

Misra, A. Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2003). Finite Element Analysis of Dentin/Adhesive Interface. Proceedings, 29th Annual Meeting of the Society of Biomaterials, Reno, NV, May.

Misra, A. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2003). Finite element analysis of dentin/adhesive interface micromechanics. Abstract #1643, AADR Meeting, March.

Misra, A. Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2003). Finite element analysis of the dentin/adhesive interface. Society of Biomaterials Annual Meeting, April.

Hager, C. Wang, Y. Hung, T. & Spencer, P. (2003). Histomorphology of the d/a interface at the cementum- and dentin-enamel junctions. Abstract #592, AADR Meeting, March.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2003). Molecular Dynamics at the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. Transactions of the Academy of Dental Materials, Vol 17:111-129.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Katz, J. L. (2003). Molecular imaging of the caries-affected dentin/adhesive interface. Abstract #1199, AADR Meeting, March.

Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Katz, J. L. (2003). Molecular/Mechanical Imaging at the Material/Tissue Interface. FACSS 30th Annual Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA, October 19 - 23.

Zhang, J. Dusevich, V. Deben, S. Zhu, Q. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. Dallas, S. L., Harris, S. E., Eick, J. D., Bonewald, L. F., & Feng, J. Q. (2003). Overexpression of human bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) results in defects and reduced mineralization in the developing tooth. Abstract #59, AADR Meeting, March.

Benavides, E. Spencer, P. Glaros, A. Katz, J. L., Katz, J. O., Bilgen, M. & McIff, T. (2003). Preliminary Structure and Property Characterization of the Temporomandibular Joint. The American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. 54th Annual Session, Chicago, IL, Dec, page 50.

Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2003). Structural, chemical and mechanical characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface. 28th Symposium on Ultrasonic Imaging and Tissue Characterization, May 29.

Abbas, A. Macdougall, M. Zhu, Q. Ye, L. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2003). The Dmp-1 gene is essential for normal post-natal tooth development. Abstract #1232, AADR Meeting, March.

Petrie, C. S., Walker, M. P., O’Mahony, A. M., & Spencer, P. (2003). Dimensional accuracy and surface detail reproduction of two hydrophilic polyvinyl siloxane impression materials tested under dry, moist and wet conditions. J Prosthetic Dentistry, 90(4), 365-376.

Walker, M. P., Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (2003). Effect of Simulated Resin-Bonded Fixed Partial Denture Clinical Conditions on Resin Cement Mechanical Properties. J Oral Rehabilitation, 30(8), 837-846.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2003). Hybridization of the Adhesive/Dentin Interface with Wet Bonding. J Dent Res, 82(2), 141-145.

Walker, M. P., Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (2003). Mechanical Property Characterization of Resin Cement After Aqueous Aging with and without Cyclic Loading. Dental Materials, 19(7), 645-652.

Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Nomura, T. Wagh, A. & Wang, Y. (2003). Micromechanical Properties of Demineralized Dentin Collagen With and Without Adhesive Infiltration. J Biomed Mater Res A, 66(1), 120-128.

Walker, M. P., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2003). Morphologic and Chemical Characterization of the Dentin/Resin Cement Interface Produced with a Self-etching Primer. J Adhesive Dent, 4(3), 181-189.

Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Wagh, A. Nomura, T. & Bumrerraj, S. (2002). Structural, Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. In K. U. Lewandrowski, D. L. Wise, D. J. Trantolo, J. D. Gresser, M. Yaszemski, & D. E. Altobelli (Eds.), Tissue Engineering and Biodegradable Equivalents: Scientific and Clinical Applications (pp. 775-793). New York: Marcel Decker.

Tabib-Azar, M. Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Scott, A. & Wang, Y. (2002). Acousto-Electromagnetic Properties of Human Dentin. Proceedings of 2nd Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology, 179-182.

Katz, J. L., Tabib-Azar, M. Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2002). Acousto-opto-electro-properties of the Dental Tissue/Adhesive Interfaces. Biophysical Journal, 82(1): 2501, Abstract #3703 Part 2, (Biophysical Society Annual Meeting) March.

Tabib-Azar, M. Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Wagh, A. Namura, T. Scott, A. & Wang, Y. (2002). Acousto-Opto-Electromagnetic Properties of Human Dentin and Cortical Bone Collagen. Biophysical Journal, 82(1): 2501, Abstract #3703 Part 2, (Biophysical Society Annual Meeting).

Katz, J. L., Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Wagh, A. Bumrerraj, S. Nomura, T. & Hein, H. J. (2002). Elastic Moduli of Connective Tissues Determined by Scanning Acoustic Microscopy. First International Conference on the Ultrasonic Measurement and Imaging of Tissue Elasticity. Ontario, Canada, October 20-23.

Walker, M. P., Spencer, P. Eick, J. D., Glaros, A. Lau, Y. S., & Holder, A. (2002). Mechanical Property and Fracture Characterization of Resin Cement after Aqueous Aging with and without Cyclic Loading. J Dental Research 81:A-169, Abstract No. 1212, March (IADR Meeting).

Purk, J. H., Dusevich, V. Glaros, A. Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (2002). Microtensile Strength of In-Vivo vs In-Vitro Cavity Walls in Premolars. J Dental Research 81:A-138, Abstract No. 944, March (IADR Meeting).

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2002). Nondestructive Measurement of the Quality of the Hybrid Layer with One-Bottle Adhesive Systems. J Dental Research 81:A-247, Abstract No. 1896, March (IADR Meeting).

Katz, J. L., Tabib-Azar, M. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Wagh, A. (2002). Scanning Acoustic and Microwave Atomic Force Microscopies of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. J Biomedical Materials Research, abstract #509, 2002 (Society of Biomaterials Annual Meeting).

Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2002). Self-Etching Adhesives: Conversion at the Dentin Interface and Within the Tubule. J Dental Research 81:A-469, Abstract No. 3831, March (IADR Meeting) .

Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2002). Adhesive Phase Separation at the Dentin Interface Under Wet Bonding Conditions. J Biomedical Materials Research, 62(3), 447-456.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2002). Analysis of Acid-Treated Dentin Smear Debris and Smear Layer Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy. J Biomedical Materials Research, 60(2), 300-308.

Masood, F. Katz, J. O., Hardman, P. K., Glaros, A. G., & Spencer, P. (2002). Comparison of panoramic radiography and panoramic digital subtraction radiography in the detection of simulated osteophytic lesions of the mandibular condyle. Oral Surg, Oral Med, Oral Pathol, Oral Radiol, Endod, 93, 626-31.

Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2002). Quantifying Adhesive Penetration in Adhesive/Dentin Interface Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy. J Biomed Mater Res, 59(1), 46-55.

Brown, M. L., Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., McMann, T. R., & Spencer, P. (2001). Interfacial Chemistry of Class II Composite Restorations. J Dental Research 80:195, Abstract No. 1273, March (AADR Meeting).

Katz, J. L., Nomura, T. Wang, Y. Spencer, P. & Feigal, R. J. (2001). Interfacial Micro-Mechanics and Chemistry of In Vivo Composite Restorations. J Dental Research 80:181, Abstract No. 1164, March (AADR Meeting).

Katz, J. L., Nomura, T. Wagh, A. Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2001). Micro-Chemical and Mechanical Properties/Structure Relationship at the Dentitional Tissues-Adhesive-Composite Interfaces. Annual Meeting of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Keynote Address, New Orleans, LA, February 11-15.

Katz, J. L., Nomura, T. Wagh, A. Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2001). Micro-Mechanical and Chemical Study of Demineralized Dentin/Adhesive Mixtures. J Dental Research 80:639, Abstract No. 902, June (IADR Meeting).

Purk, J. H., Krenkel, D. C., Glaros, A. Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (2001). Microtensile Strength of Gingival vs. Axial Walls in In Vitro Premolars. J Dental Research 80:248, Abstract No. 1700, March (AADR Meeting).

Wang, Y. McMann, T. R., Walker, M. P., & Spencer, P. (2001). Morphologic and Chemical Characterization of the Dentin/Self-Etch Interface. J Dental Research 80:250, Abstract No. 1715 2001 (AADR Meeting).

Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., McMann, T. R., & Spencer, P. (2001). Quality of the Hybrid Layer Formed Under Wet Bonding Conditions. J Dental Research 80:250, Abstract No. 1714, March (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., & McMann, T. R. (2001). Wet/Dry Dentin Adhesive Bonding Effect on Composition and Conversion. J Dental Research 80:181, Abstract No. 1163, March 2001 (AADR Meeting).

O’Mahony, A. M., Williams, J. L., & Spencer, P. (2001). A finite element analysis of the effects of anisotropic properties of cancellous bone on the peri-implant stress and strain. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 12, 648-657.

Petrie, C. S., Eick, J. D., Williams, K. & Spencer, P. (2001). Comparison of the Tensile Bond Strengths of Three Different Surface Treated Alloys Cemented to Human Teeth. J Prosthodontics, 10(4), 217-223.

McDavid, V. G., Cobb, C. M., Rapley, J. W., Glaros, A. G., & Spencer, P. (2001). Laser Irradiation of Bone: III. Long-Term Healing Following Treatment by CO2 and Nd:YAG Lasers. J Periodontol, 72, 174-182.

Katz, J. L., Bumerraj, S. Dreyfuss, J. Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2001). Micromechanics of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. J Biomedical Materials Research: Applied Biomaterials, 58(4), 366-371.

Gawenis, L. R., Spencer, P. Hillman, L. S., Morris, J. S., & Clarke, L. L. (2001). Mineral Content of Calcified Tissues in Cystic Fibrosis Mice. Biological Trace Element Research, 83, 69-81.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., & Swafford, J. R. (2001). Molecular Structure of Acid-Etched Dentin Smear Layers-In Situ Study. J Dent Res, 80(9), 1802-1807.

Spencer, P. & Wang, Y. (2001). Spectral Data Processing (Letter to the Editor). J Dent Res, 80(5), 1400.

Walker, M. Wang, Y. Evans, A. Swafford, J. R., & Spencer, P. (2000). Chemical and Morphologic Characterization of the Dentin/Resin Cement Interface. J Dental Research 79:437, Abstract No. 2350, April (IADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Swafford, J. R., & Walker, M. P. (2000). Chemical Characterization of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface With/Without FeCl3. J Dental Research 79:418, Abstract No. 2198, April (IADR Meeting).

Spiliopoulou, C. Craig, A. Krenkel, D. Eick, J. D., Williams, K. & Spencer, P. (2000). Comparison of Tensile Bond Strengths of Different Surface Treated Alloys. J Dental Research 79:265, Abstract No. 974, April (IADR Meeting).

Purk, J. H., Krenkel, D. C., Glaros, A. Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (2000). Flexural Strength of Composite Resin vs Fiber Reinforced Composite Resin. J Dental Research 79:446, Abstract No. 2421, April (IADR Meeting).

White, R. J., Dusuvich, V. Eick, J. D., Spencer, P. Williams, K. B., & Kula, K. S. (2000). In Vitro Effects of Daily Topical Fluorides on TMA Orthodontic Wire. J Dental Research 79:527, Abstract No. 3067, April (IADR Meeting).

Katz, J. L., Bumrerraj, S. Dreyfuss, J. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Swafford, J. R. (2000). Micro-Techniques for the Study of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. Sixth World Biomaterials Congress, P750, May 15-20, Kamuela, Hawaii.

Katz, J. L., Bumrerraj, S. Dreyfuss, J. Spencer, P. Wang, Y. & Swafford, J. R. (2000). Micromechanics, Morphology, and Chemistry Direct at the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. J Dental Research 79:336, Abstract No. 1540, April (IADR Meeting).

Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., Swafford, J. R., & Spencer, P. (2000). Molecular Structure of the Acid-Treated Smear Layer. J Dental Research 79:181, Abstract No. 300, April (IADR Meeting).

Spiliopoulou, C. Krenkel, D. Craig, A. Eick, J. D., Williams, K. & Spencer, P. (2000). Tensile Testing at the Metal/Resin Cement/Enamel Interface. J Dental Research 79:265, Abstract No. 973, April (IADR Meeting).

Swafford, J. R., Walker, M. P., Wang, Y. & Spencer, P. (2000). Ultrastructural Characterization of the Smear/Self-Etch Primer Interface. J Dental Research 79:269, Abstract No. 1007, April (IADR Meeting).

O’Mahony, A. M., Williams, J. L., Katz, J. O., & Spencer, P. (2000). Anisotropic properties of cancellous bone from a human edentulous mandible. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 11(5), 415-421.

Spencer, P. Cobb, C. M., Wieliczka, D. M., Glaros, A. G., & Morris, P. J. (2000). Change in Temperature of Subjacent Bone During Soft Tissue Laser Ablation. Year Book of Dentistry, 277-279.

Lemor, R. M., Kruger, M. B., Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. & May, T. (2000). Dentin etch chemistry investigated by Raman and infrared spectroscopy. J Raman Spect, 31, 171-176.

Walker, M. P., Wang, Y. Swafford, J. Evans, A. & Spencer, P. (2000). Influence of Additional Acid Etch Treatment on Resin Cement Dentin Infiltration. J Prosthodontics, 9(2), 77-81.

Spencer, P. Wang, Y. Walker, M. P., Wieliczka, D. M., & Swafford, J. R. (2000). Interfacial Chemistry of the Dentin/Adhesive Bond. J Dent Res, 79(7), 1458-1463.

Friesen, L. R., Cobb, C. M., Rapley, J. W., Forgas, L. B., & Spencer, P. (2000). Laser irradiation of bone: II. Healing response following treatment by CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers. Year Book of Dentistry, 279-281.

O’Mahony, A. Bowles, Q. Woolsey, G. Robinson, S. J., & Spencer, P. (2000). Stress distribution in the single-unit osseointegrated dental implants: finite element analyses of axial and off-axial loading. Implant Dentistry, 9(3), 207-218.

O’Mahony, A. Spencer, P. Williams, K. & Corcoran, J. (2000). The effect of three medicaments on the dimensional accuracy and surface detail reproduction of polyvinylsiloxane impression material. Quintessence Int, 31(3), 201-206.

O'Mahony, A. Spencer, P. Williams, K. Markway, G. & Corcoran, J. (1999). Effects of retraction cord medicaments on polyvinylsiloxane impression materials. J Dental Research 78:400, Abstract No. 2353, March (IADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Eick, J. D., & Swafford, J. R. (1999). Field emission scanning microscopy of etched dentin under hydrated conditions. J Dental Research 78:225, Abstract No. 955, March (IADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. & Swafford, J. R. (1999). High resolution imaging of the smear/dentin/adhesive interface under environmental conditions. J Dental Research 78:474, Abstract No. 2952, March (IADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Brown, M. Swafford, J. R., Cobb, C. M., Peavy, G. M., Reinisch, L. & Wieliczka, D. M. (1999). Raman spectroscopic analysis of bone ablated with free electron laser. J Dental Research 78:192, Abstract No. 690, March (IADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Swafford, J. R., Brown, M. & Wieliczka, D. M. (1999). Spectroscopic and morphologic imaging of the dentin/adhesive interface. J Dental Research 78:111, Abstract No. 42, March (IADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. & Wieliczka, D. M. (1999). A review of the chemical and morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface. Recent Research Developments in Applied Spectroscopy, 2, 183-193.

O’Mahony, A. & Spencer, P. (1999). Core build-up restorations; materials and techniques. J Irish Dental Association, 45(3), 84-90.

Spencer, P. (1999). Dental Amalgam Toxicity or Tales of a “Mad Hatter”. J Southeastern Society of Ped Dent, 5(1), 11-12.

Spencer, P. Payne, J. M., Cobb, C. M., Reinisch, L. Peavy, G. M., Drummer, D. D., Suchman, D. L., & Swafford, J. R. (1999). Effective Laser Ablation of Bone Based on the Absorption Characteristics of Water and Proteins. J Periodontol, 70, 68-74.

MacNeill, S. R., Cobb, C. M., Rapley, J. W., Glaros, A. G., & Spencer, P. (1999). In Vivo Comparison of Synthetic Osseous Graft Materials. J Clin Perio, 26, 239-245.

Friesen, L. R., Cobb, C. M., Rapley, J. W., Forgas, L. B., & Spencer, P. (1999). Laser irradiation of bone: II. Healing response following treatment by CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers. J Periodontol, 70, 75-83.

O’Mahony, A. & Spencer, P. (1999). Osseointegrated implant failures. J Irish Dent Assoc, 45, 44-51.

Lemor, R. M., Wieliczka, D. M., Kruger, M. B., Swafford, J. R., & Spencer, P. (1999). Spectroscopic and morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface. J Biomed Optics, 4, 22-27.

Spencer, P. & Swafford, J. R. (1999). Unprotected protein at the dentin/adhesive interface. Quintessence Int, 30, 501-507.

Spencer, P. Lopez, C. Z., Padilla, M. Gordon, J. & Williams, K. (1999). Comparacion de la Cantidad de Fluor Liberado por Sellantes en Agua Destilada y Saliva Artificial. Colombian J Ped Dent, 3(1), 9-16.

O'Mahony, A. Bowles, Q. Spencer, P. & Woolsey, G. (1998). A Finite Element Analysis of the Stress Distribution of an Osseointegrated Dental Implant. J Dental Research 77:121, Abstract No. 128, March (AADR Meeting).

Pollina, L. Saxe, J. Spencer, P. & Swafford, J. (1998). A Novel Investigation of the Smear Layer. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Spencer, P. Drummer, D. L., Suchman, D. L., Payne, J. T., Cobb, C. M., & Swafford, J. R. (1998). Ablation of Bone with the Vanderbilt Free Electron Laser. J Dental Research 77:182, Abstract No. 612, March (AADR Meeting).

Padilla, M. Gordon, J. Spencer, P. & Swafford, J. (1998). Characterization and Comparison of Dentin Tubule Distribution in Primary and Permanent Teeth. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Lemor, R. Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. & Kruger, M. B. (1998). Influence of surface treatment on the adhesive/dentin interface studied with Raman spectroscopy. J Dental Research 77:810, Abstract No. 1429, June (IADR Meeting).

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. & Lemor, R. (1998). Infrared spectroscopy at the adhesive/dentin interface. J Dental Research 77:911, Abstract No. 2233, June (IADR Meeting).

Swafford, J. R., & Spencer, P. (1998). Novel Approach to Protein Identification at the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. J Dental Research 77:224, Abstract No. 952, March (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Drummer, D. Payne, J. Suchman, D. & Wieliczka, D. (1998). Spectroscopic Analysis of Bone Ablated with a Free Electron Laser. J Dental Research 77:182, Abstract No. 611, March (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Cobb, C. M., Wieliczka, D. M., Glaros, A. G., & Morris, P. J. (1998). Change in Temperature of Subjacent Bone During Soft Tissue Laser Ablation. J Perio, 69, 1278-1282.

Moffitt, C. E., Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. Cole, R. & Wandera, A. (1998). Equilibrium vapor pressure of mercury from dental amalgam under loading conditions. Biomaterials, 19, 1319-1322.

Bohaty, B. S., Wandera, A. Dunlap, C. & Spencer, P. (1998). A thorough dental examination at an early age assists in an appropriate classification of a subtype of Epidermolysis Bullosa: Report of a Case. J Clin Ped Dent, 22(3), 243-246.

Gawenis, L. R., Morris, J. S., Derenzy, B. Wolf, C. L., Spencer, P. & Clarke, L. L. (1997). Altered mineral content in the incisors of CFTR (-) mice. Ped Pulmon 14:253A.

Bohaty, B. S., & Spencer, P. (1997). Dental Professionals’ Perceptions of Dental Fluorosis: Results of a Bi-State Survey. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Koositra, R. McDavid, V. Spencer, P. Swafford, J. & Cobb, C. (1997). Morphologic Characterization of Bone Healing Secondary to Laser Exposure, In Vivo. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. & Kruger, M. B. (1997). Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. J Dental Research 78:192, Abstract No. 690, March (IADR Meeting).

Krause, L. S., Cobb, C. M., Rapley, J. W., Killoy, W. J., & Spencer, P. (1997). Laser Irradiation of Bone: I. An In Vitro Study Concerning the Effects of the CO2 laser on Oral Mucosa and Subjacent Cortical Bone. J Perio, 68, 872-880.

Wieliczka, D. M., Kruger, M. B., & Spencer, P. (1997). Raman Imaging of Dental Adhesive Diffusion. Appl Spect, 51, 1593-1596.

Israel, M. Cobb, C. M., Rossmann, J. A., & Spencer, P. (1997). The Effects of Nd:YAG, ER:YAG and CO2 Lasers With and Without Air/Water Surface Coolant on Tooth Root Surfaces: An In Vitro Study. J Clin Periodont, 24, 595-602.

Padilla, M. Gordon, J. Spencer, P. & Swafford, J. (1997). Fluoride-Releasing Sealants: An In Vitro Analysis. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.

Koositra, R. McDavid, V. Spencer, P. Swafford, J. & Cobb, C. M. (1996). Bone Healing Kinetics of Laser Induced Defects. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Fernandez, M. Spencer, P. Swafford, J. & Wieliczka, D. (1996). Corrosion Microstructure of Gallium vs Mercury Containing Alloys. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Suchman, D. Spencer, P. & Hathaway, R. (1996). Exploring structural, morphologic, and chemical changes in carious dentin after exposure to the CO2 laser using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscope. Biological Sciences Undergraduate Research Conference, April.

Friesen, L. R., Cobb, C. M., Spencer, P. Rapley, J. R., & Forgas, L. B. (1996). Healing of Laser Induced Bone Defects: An In Vivo Study. J Dental Research 75:91, Abstract No. 591(IADR/AADR Meeting).

Montgomery, K. Spencer, P. Bohaty, B. & Swafford, J. (1996). Interface Breakdown in Esthetic Stainless Steel Crowns. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Lopez, C. Padilla, M. Spencer, P. Cobb, C. M., & Wieliczka, D. M. (1996). Intrapulpal Temperature Changes During Exposure to Two Different Laser Wavelengths. J Dental Research 75:428, Abstract No. 3288, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. & Moffitt, C. E. (1996). Oxidation Studies of Mercury Amalgams and Gallium Alloys using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. J Dental Research 75:236, Abstract No. 1747, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Jennings, J. Spencer, P. & Swafford, J. (1996). Sonic vs Mechanical Brushing: Effect on Marginal Breakdown in Esthetic Materials. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. Kruger, M. LeGeros, R. Z., & Moffitt, C. E. (1996). Spectroscopic Characterization of Chloro-, Flouro-, and Hydroxyapatite. J Dental Research 75:89, Abstract No. 569, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. Kruger, M. B., & Eick, J. D. (1996). Spectroscopic Characterization of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. J Dental Research 75:237, Abstract No. 1758, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. Moffitt, C. E., Wagner, E. J., & Wandera, A. (1996). Equilibrium vapor pressure of mercury from dental amalgam in vitro. Dent Mater, 12(3), 179-184.

Wandera, A. Spencer, P. & Bohaty, B. (1996). In vitro comparative fluoride release, and weight and volume change in light-curing and self-curing glass ionomer materials. Ped Dent, 18, 210-214.

Payne, J. M., Cobb, C. M., Rapley, J. W., Killoy, W. J., & Spencer, P. (1996). Migration of Human Gingival Fibroblasts over Guided Tissue Regeneration Barrier Materials. J Perio, 67, 236-244.

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. & Kruger, M. B. (1996). Raman Mapping of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. Appl Spectroscopy, 50, 1500-1504.

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. & LeGeros, R. Z. (1996). Surface Spectroscopy of Apatitic Materials: Limitations and Concerns. J Dent Res, 75(11), 1865-1870.

Spencer, P. Cobb, C. M., McCollum, M. H., & Wieliczka, D. M. (1996). The Effects of CO2 Laser and Nd:YAG With and Without Water/Air Surface Cooling on Tooth Root Structure: Correlation between FTIR Spectroscopy and Histology. J Perio Res, 31, 453-462.

Arakawa, S. Cobb, C. M., Rapley, J. W., Killoy, W. J., & Spencer, P. (1996). Treatment of root fracture by CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers: an in vitro study. J Endo, 22(12), 662-667.

Fernandez, M. A., Spencer, P. Wieliczka, D. & Wandera, A. (1995). Amalgam Mercury Release: A Clear and Present Danger? Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Montgomery, K. R., Lopez, C. Spencer, P. & Bohaty, B. (1995). Doctor, How Hot is that Lased Tissue? Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry meeting, May.

Wandera, A. Spencer, P. & Bohaty, B. S. (1995). Fluoride Release from a Polymaleinate Glass Ionomer Restorative Material. J Dental Research 74:108, Abstract No. 769, March (AADR Meeting).

Defelice, M. A., Cobb, C. M., & Spencer, P. (1995). Histologic Comparison of Soft Tissue Incisions Made by CO2 and Nd:YAG Lasers. J Dental Research 74:208, Abstract No. 1569, March (AADR meeting).

Cobb, C. M., Spencer, P. & McCollum, M. H. (1995). Histologic comparison of the CO2 laser and Hd:YAG with and without water/air surface cooling on tooth root structure. J Dental Research 74:208, Abstract No. 1571, March (AADR Meeting).

Cobb, C. M., Spencer, P. & McCollum, M. H. (1995). Histologic comparison of the CO2 laser and Nd:YAG with and without water/air surface cooling on tooth root structure. International Symposium on Biomedical Optics, Sponsored by the International Society for Optical Engineering, February.

Wieliczka, D. M., Moffitt, C. Spencer, P. & Wandera, A. (1995). Measurement of Mercury Release from Dental Amalgam with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. J Dental Research 74:102, Abstract No. 724, March (AADR Meeting).

Hoang, C. Cobb, C. M., Spencer, P. & Robinson, S. J. (1995). Morphologic Characterization of Laser Induced Dentin Defects. J Dental Research 74:208, Abstract No. 1569, March (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Cobb, C. M., McCollum, M. H., & Wieliczka, D. M. (1995). Spectroscopic comparison of the effects of CO2, Nd:YAG, and water cooled Nd:YAG on tooth root. International Symposium on Biomedical Optics, Sponsored by the International Society for Optical Engineering, February.

Spencer, P. Cobb, C. M., McCollum, M. H., & Wieliczka, D. M. (1995). Spectroscopic comparison of the effects of CO2, Nd:YAG, and water cooled Nd:YAG on tooth root. SPIE (Society for Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers), 2394:32-40.

Spencer, P. Wandera, A. Wieliczka, D. M., Cobb, C. M., & Kruger, M. (1995). Structural Analysis of Early Bone Healing. J Dental Research 74:222, Abstract No. 1684, March (AADR Meeting).

Bohaty, B. S., Wandera, A. & Spencer, P. (1995). Unusual dental characteristics associated with Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: Report of a Case. Table clinic presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Eick, J. D., Robinson, S. J., Byerley, T. J., Chappell, R. P., Spencer, P. & Chappelow, C. C. (1995). Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy/energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy Analysis of the Dentin Adhesive Interface Using a Labeled 2-Hydroxyethylmethacrylate. J Dent Res, 74(6), 1246-1252.

Mixson, J. M., Spencer, P. Moore, D. L., Chappell, R. P., & Adams, S. (1995). Surface Morphology and Chemical Characterization of Abrasion/Erosion Lesion. Am J Dent, 8, 5-9.

Bohaty, B. S., & Spencer, P. (1994). A Novel Assessment of Dental Fluorosis. Research Presentation at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Chappell, R. P., Cobb, C. M., Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (1994). Dentinal Tubule Anastomoses: A new Factor in Dentinal Adhesive Bonding. J Dental Research 73:107, Abstract No. 47, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. Wagner, E. & Wandera, A. (1994). Factors Influencing the Accurate Measurement of Mercury using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. J Dental Research 73:105, Abstract No. 28, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Drisko, C. Cobb, C. M., Nelson, C. Spencer, P. & Yancey, J. (1994). Residual Calculus Following Use of Curettes vs. Cavitron Slimline Inserts. J Dental Research 73:160, Abstract No. 468, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Wieliczka, D. M., Meeske, J. Adams, S. E., & Eick, J. D. (1994). The Resin/ Dentin Interface-Morphologic and Chemical Characterization. J Dental Research 73:107, Abstract No. 44, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Chappell, R. P., Cobb, C. M., Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (1994). Dentinal Tubule Anastomosis: A Potential Factor in Adhesive Bonding? J Prosth Dent, 72, 183-188.

Thomas, D. Cobb, C. Rapley, J. Spencer, P. & Killoy, W. (1994). Effects of the Nd:YAG laser and combined treatments on in vitro fibroblast attachment to root surfaces. J Clin Perio, 21, 38-44.

Chappell, R. P., Spencer, P. & Eick, J. D. (1994). The Effects of Current Dentinal Adhesives on the Dentin Surface. Quintessence Int, 25, 851-859.

Woolsey, G. D., Leser, C. P., Eick, J. D., & Spencer, P. (1994). SEM Characterization of In vivo Interproximal Amalgam Surfaces. J Dental Research 73:104, Abstract No. 24, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Sanchez, R. A., Moore, D. J., Cowan, R. D., & Spencer, P. (1993). Verifying the Reliability of Interchanging Casts between Hanau Modular Articulators. J Prosth, 2, 220-223.

Blackwell, B. Spencer, P. Adams, S. Dixit, U. & Bohaty, B. (1993). Carbamide Peroxide Tooth Bleaching: Effects on Composite Composition and Topography. J Dental Research 72:259, Abstract No. 1243, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Wieliczka, D. M., Spencer, P. Wagner, E. Wintergerst, J. & Whalen, B. (1993). Characterization of Synthetic Apatites using Surface Spectroscopy Techniques. J Dental Research 72:383, Abstract No. 2241, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Adams, S. Spencer, P. Dixit, U. Mixson, J. Ahlert, J. & Vergotine, R. (1993). Chemical Characterization of Sclerotic Dentin using FTIR Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. J Dental Research 72:258, Abstract No. 1238, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Wieliczka, D. M., Wagner, E. Eick, J. D., & Miller, R. (1993). Damage to Biological Substrates Following Exposure to High Vacuum Techniques. J Dental Research 72:383, Abstract No. 2239, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. (1993). Dentin Bonding Agents: Past, Present, & Future. Mini clinic presentation at the annual Missouri Dental Association.

Wagner, E. Wieliczka, D. M., & Spencer, P. (1993). Mercury Release in Dental Amalgam using Surface Spectroscopy. J Dental Research 72:112, Abstract No. 72, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Wieliczka, D. M., Wintergerst, J. Wagner, E. Spencer, P. Whalen, B. & Eick, D. (1993). Photoemission Studies on Dental Adhesives. J Dental Research 72:386, Abstract No. 2262, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Eick, D. Robinson, S. Byerley, T. Chappell, R. Spencer, P. & Chappelow, C. (1993). STEM Observation of the Tagged HEMA-Dentin-Adhesive Interface. J Dental Research 72:350, Abstract No. 1972, March (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Shannon, H. Spencer, P. Gross, K. & Tira, D. (1993). Characterization of Enamel Exposed to 10% Carbamide Peroxide Bleaching Agents. Quintessence Inter, 24, 39-44.

Schultz, P. H., Brockman-Bell, S. L., Eick, J. D., Gross, K. W., Chappell, R. P., & Spencer, P. (1993). Effects of Air-Powder Polishing on the Bond Strength of Orthodontic Bracket Adhesive System. J Dent Hygiene, 67, 74-80.

Parker, R. Rapley, J. Isley, R. Spencer, P. & Killoy, W. (1993). Gingival Crevicular Blood for Assessment of Blood Glucose in Diabetic Patients. J Periodontol, 64(7), 666-672.

Eick, J. D., Robinson, S. J., Chappell, R. P., Cobb, C. M., & Spencer, P. (1993). The Dentinal Surface: Its Influence on Dentinal Adhesion. Part III. Quintessence Int, 24, 571-582.

Fales, J. T., Lowe, J. W., O'Neil, D. W., Spencer, P. & Bohaty, B. S. (1993). Factors Influencing Children's Recovery Time from General Anesthesia. J Mo Dent Assoc, 73, 22-29.

Sanchez, E. I., Bohaty, B. & Spencer, P. (1992). Enamel Surface Abrasion: Clinical Evaluation. Missouri Dental Alumni Meeting, March.

Spencer, P. Gorski, J. P., & Cobb, C. M. (1992). FTIR Photoacoustic Spectroscopic Analysis of Healing Bone Defects. J Dental Research 71:307, Abstract No. 1614, March (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. & Gorski, J. (1992). FTIR Photoacoustic Spectroscopic Analysis of Healing Canine Tibial Defects. Bone and Mineral 17 (Spec Issue):311, (Fifth International Conference on Cell-Mediated Calcification and Matrix Vesicles, 1991).

Marshall, L. L., & Spencer, P. (1992). FTIR Photoacoustic Spectroscopic Analysis of Structural Variation in Dentin. J Dental Research 71:265, Abstract No. 1277, March (AADR Meeting).

Eick, J. Robinson, S. Spencer, P. Cobb, C. Chappell, R. & Sackuvich, D. (1992). Influence of the Treated Dentin Surface on Adhesive Performance. J Dental Research 71:170, Abstract No. 520, March (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. (1992). New Esthetic Materials: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly. 1992 Kansas City Section AADR Symposium, Dental Products-Use and Abuse, January.

Bohaty, B. & Spencer, P. (1992). Trends in Dental Treatment Rendered under General Anesthesia; a Ten Year Comparison. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Spencer, P. Trylovich, D. & Cobb, C. M. (1992). Chemical Characterization of Lased Root Surfaces using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. J Periodontol, 63(7), 633-636.

Bohaty, B. Spencer, P. & Haynes, J. (1992). Community Service and Dental Education - A Combined Approach. ASDC J Dent Children, 59(3), 212-215.

Trylovich, D. J., Cobb, C. M., Pippin, D. J., Spencer, P. & Killoy, W. J. (1992). Effects of the Nd:YAG Laser on In Vitro Fibroblast Attachment to Endotoxin Treated Root Surfaces. J Periodontol, 63(7), 626-632.

Bohaty, B. & Spencer, P. (1992). Trends in Dental Treatment Rendered under General Anesthesia, 1978 to 1990. J Clin Ped Dent, 16, 222-224.

Spencer, P. Byerley, T. J., Eick, J. D., & Witt, J. D. (1992). Chemical Characterization of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface by Photoacoustic Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Dent Mater, 8, 10-15.

Spencer, P. (1991). Application of FTIR Spectroscopy to the Analysis of Early Fracture Repair Tissue. Connective Tissue Journal Club, September.

Bohaty, B. & Spencer, P. (1991). Community Service and Pediatric Dental Education. Missouri Dental Alumni Meeting, March.

Spencer, P. Byerley, T. Marshall, L. Eick, D. & Witt, J. (1991). Dentin/Adhesive Surface Characterization using FT-IR Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. J Dental Research 70:458, Abstract No. 1533, April (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Jacob, P. Brockman, S. Eick, J. D., Gross, K. Chappell, R. P., & Spencer, P. (1991). Effect of Airpolishing on Bond Strength of Orthodontic Adhesives. J Dental Research 70:297, Abstract No. 256, April, (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Sanchez, E. I., Bohaty, B. & Spencer, P. (1991). Enamel Surface Abrasion: Clinical Evaluation. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Bohaty, B. Spencer, P. & Haynes, J. I. (1991). Services of UMKC's Lowry Clinic Evaluated. Mo Dent J, 71(3), 40-43.

Eick, J. D., Cobb, C. M., Chappell, R. P., Spencer, P. & Robinson, R. J. (1991). The Dentin Surface - Its Influence on Dentin Adhesion, Part I. Quintessence Inter, 22, 967-977.

Eick, J. D., Robinson, R. J., Cobb, C. M., Chappell, R. P., & Spencer, P. (1991). The Dentin Surface - Its Influence on Dentin Adhesion, Part II. Quintessence Inter, 23, 43-51.

Bohaty, B. & Spencer, P. (1990). Community Service and Pediatric Dental Education. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Mixson, J. Eick, J. Tira, D. Spencer, P. & Moore, D. (1990). Comparison of Sectional Scoring methodologies for In Vitro Microleakage Studies. J Dental Research 69:129, Abstract No. 161, March (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Cobb, C. M., Beyerley, T. J., & Eick, J. D. (1990). FTIR Microspectroscopy and TEM of Bone following Mg, F Exposure. J Dental Research 69:224, Abstract No. 923, March (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Eick, J. D., & Byerley, T. J. (1990). FTIR Microspectroscopy of the Dentin/Adhesive Interface. J Dental Research 69:116, Abstract No. 57, (AADR Meeting).

Bohaty, B. & Spencer, P. (1989). Change in Dental Treatment Patterns in an Urban Pediatric Population, 1977 to 1987. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, May.

Eick, J. Spencer, P. Chappell, R. Cobb, C. Robinson, S. & Sackuvich, D. (1989). Further SEM/TEM of the Smear Layer and Dentin-Adhesive Interface. J Dental Research 68:321, Abstract No. 1116, March (AADR Meeting).

Chappell, R. Eick, J. Mixson, J. Spencer, P. & Theisen, F. (1989). Shear Bond Strength and SEM Observation of Four Dentin Adhesives. J Dental Research 68:344, Abstract No. 1302, March, (AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Bohaty, B. Haynes, J. I., Iwersen, A. E., & Sabates, C. (1989). Change in Dental Treatment Needs in an Urban Pediatric Population, 1977 to 1987. ASDC J Dent Child, 57, 463-466.

Spencer, P. Barnes, C. Garcia, R. Elliott, C. Hurley, L. & Doremus, R. (1989). Incorporation of Magnesium into Rat Dental Enamel and Its Influence on Crystallization. Archs Oral Biol, 34, 767-771.

Spencer, P. Doremus, R. Garcia, R. & Martini, J. (1988). Structure of Enamel-Effect of Mg and NaF Administration. J Dental Research 67:289, Abstract No. 1414, March, (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Doremus, R. Barnes, C. D., & Barnes, E. A. (1987). Isolation of Mg According to Developmental Age. J Dental Research 66:142, Abstract No. 285, March, (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. & Fleming, F. E. (1985). Cyclic Neutropenia: A Literature Review and Report of a Case. ASDC J of Dent Children, 52, 108-113.

Fleming, J. E., Bayne, S. C., Spencer, P. & Tames, C. (1984). 45 Month Clinical of Extracoronal Laminate Veneer Performance. J Dental Research 63:291, Abstract No. 1082, March, (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. Kruckberg, W. C., Barnett, J. M., Kent, P. & DeVille, R. A. (1984). Attachment of Oral Deposits to Solids with Defined Surface Characteristics. J Dental Research 63:215, Abstract No. 397, March, (IADR/AADR Meeting).

Spencer, P. & Barnett, J. M. (1983). Bacterial Adhesion to Two Sealants with Defined Surface Characteristics. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Meeting, May.

Spencer, P. Douglas, W. H., Messer, L. B., & Craig, R. G. (1982). In Vitro Comparison of a Hydrophilic and a Hydrophobic Fissure Sealant. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Meeting, May.

Spencer, P. Douglas, W. H., Messer, L. B., & Craig, R. G. (1980). In Vitro Comparison of Two Fissure Sealants. J Dental Research 59:427, Abstract No. 640, March, (AADR Meeting).


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