Bala Subramaniam is the Dan F. Servey Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Kansas (KU). Subramaniam earned a B.Tech. in Chemical Engineering from the A. C. College of Technology, Chennai, India and his Ph. D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Notre Dame. He has also held visiting professorships at the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom and Institute of Process Engineering, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
Subramaniam's research interests are in catalysis, reaction engineering and crystallization. In particular, his research harnesses the pressure-tunable physicochemical properties of unconventional solvents such as supercritical fluids and gas-expanded liquids in multiphase catalysis to develop resource-efficient technologies with reduced environmental footprint. He has authored nearly 200 refereed research publications and 30 issued patents, edited 2 books, presented invited seminars at nearly 100 academic institutions and companies, and given keynote/plenary lectures at nearly 50 conferences.
Subramaniam is the Director of the Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC), initiated as a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center (NSF-ERC), and now a successful center known for its unique industry collaboration model and multi-scale approach to delivering innovations. In partnership with member companies (including ADM, BASF Catalysts, BP, ConocoPhillips, Chevron Phillips, DuPont, Eastman Chemicals, Evonik, ExxonMobil, Grace, Invista, Procter&Gamble, Reliance Industries, SABIC, Solvay and UOP), the CEBC is developing and providing licensing opportunities for novel sustainable technologies related to fuels and chemicals. Subramaniam is also a co-founder of CritiTech, Inc., a pharmaceutical company with a mission to commercialize the production of fine-particle compounds based on his group's inventions.
Subramaniam is the executive editor of ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering and chair of the 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Green Chemistry. He serves on the editorial boards of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Engineering Technology. He has also been on the scientific and organizing committees of several international symposia in catalysis and reaction engineering, co-chairing the Eighteenth International Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering (ISCRE-18, Chicago, 2004) and the Joint India-U.S. Chemical Engineering Conference on Energy and Sustainability (Mumbai, 2013). He has also served as the President of ISCRE, Inc., and served on the Board of Directors of the Organic Chemical Reactions Society (ORCS).
Subramaniam has received several awards for teaching and research, including the Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award from the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE); a Silver Anniversary Teaching Award and H.O.P.E. (Honor for the Outstanding Progressive Educator) award finalist recognitions from KU; the Henry Gould Award for Teaching and a Sharp Teaching Professorship from the KU School of Engineering; Higuchi Research Achievement Award, the highest recognition for research given by KU; a "Distinguished Catalyst Researcher" lectureship from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; and a "Chemcon Distinguished Lectureship Award" from the Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers. Subramaniam is a Fellow of the AIChE, the ACS Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Division, and the National Academy of Inventors.
Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame
M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame
B. Tech., Chemical Engineering, A. C. College of Technology, University of Madras
Creative solutions to engineering problems require a sound complement of fundamental knowledge, intuition, imagination and critical thinking. I believe that a teacher has a vital role and challenge in fostering these attributes in students. My teaching methods are aimed at achieving this goal. In the theory courses, I show how engineering equations are essentially 'math-based languages' or models that aid our understanding of physical and chemical processes. I constantly encourage students to assess if the process behavior predicted by the model makes intuitive sense. Given that commercial software is invariably used for equation-solving and design purposes, it is especially essential to develop such an understanding and intuitive feel for interpreting results from computer simulations. I provide examples of how theories and equations have been used to develop engineering solutions in everyday life. In addition to traditional homework assignments that emphasize fundamentals and solution procedures, I assign two to three open-ended projects that are comprehensive in nature. These projects address industrially important problems and require students to integrate fundamental knowledge, intuition and imagination in critically analyzing and designing sustainable engineering processes that are resource-efficient (i.e., conserve feedstock and energy). I emphasize how resource-efficient technologies not only make good business sense but also are inherently green.
I believe that the laboratory courses provide a vital forum for not only reinforcing theoretical concepts but also developing essential experimental, data analysis, troubleshooting, team work and communication skills. The analysis/interpretation of experimental data form the basis for the preparation of various types of written reports (journal-type, memos, etc.) and oral presentations. Prior to each laboratory session, I require student teams to make concise presentations about their planned work and to rigorously defend their work plan. Besides providing training in oral and written communication skills, this process also helps students to solidify their understanding of theory.
Clear statement of course goals and expectations, effective lectures and notes, challenging yet fair assignments and tests, and accessibility to students are all essential to a positive learning experience -- one that motivates students' desire to learn and to excel. My teaching methods continue to evolve as I have learned more about teaching tips and techniques from student/peer feedback and from periodicals such as the Teaching Professor and Chemical Engineering Education, especially those that use modern technology-based classrooms to deliver instruction in novel ways.
My major teaching interests are in the areas of chemical engineering kinetics, reactor design, industrial development of sustainable catalytic processes, transport phenomena, mathematical methods in chemical engineering, and supercritical fluid technology.
- Chemical engineering kinetics and reactor design
- Mass transfer
- Mathematical methods in chemical engineering
- Industrial development of sustainable catalytic processes
- Chemical engineering unit operations laboratories
- Undergraduate and graduate courses.
The modern day 'petrochemical' refinery relies primarily on fossil-based feedstock (such as petroleum, natural gas and coal) to produce the essential chemical intermediates for everyday products (medicines, packaging materials, synthetic fibers, detergents, coolants, etc.). To meet the sharply increasing global demand for such products, alternate feedstocks such as plant-based biomass and shale gas are also being considered to make these chemical intermediates. These alternate sources, however, require the development of new technologies. Our research is focused on developing resource-efficient technologies, which conserve feedstock and energy, for both conventional and emerging sources. We address this challenge by discovering catalysts that selectively transform the feedstock to desired products minimizing waste, using tunable solvents that provide both reaction benefits and environmental benefits such as reduced toxicity and carbon footprints, and developing novel reactors that are energy-efficient in converting raw materials to products. Working in collaboration with several industry partners of the Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC), we have demonstrated such novel alternative technologies for many important chemical intermediates. In addition to economic assessment, we also perform cradle-to-grave life cycle analysis (LCA) of the new technologies to assess environmental performance and sustainability. One such technology for making ethylene oxide (a plastic precursor) received a prestigious award from the American Chemical Society. Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), a global leader in agricultural processing, recently opened research operations in Lawrence, KS to work closely with University of Kansas CEBC researchers to develop technologies that convert ADM's myriad plant-based feedstocks to value-added products. Such collaborations have been augmented by funding from federal agencies (US Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation and Environmental Protection Agency) to the tune of nearly $18 million since 2011. The development of such technologies has significant economic implications for the State of Kansas given its unique mix of natural resources that include not only plant-based biomass but also natural gas, crude oil and wind energy potential. A manufacturing sector built around these resources can be thriving and make Kansas among the global leaders in the manufacture and export of "renewable chemicals".
- Catalysis and reaction engineering for resource-efficient chemicals/fuels production from conventional and biomass feedstocks
- Exploiting supercritical and gas-expanded liquids in crystallization and benign chemicals/fuels processing
I have been active in service at both the University of Kansas and the professional societies [American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and the American Chemical Society (ACS)]. I especially like roles where I am able to contribute to transformational changes that have long-term beneficial impacts on the institutions I serve.
I have served as graduate advisor of the chemical and petroleum engineering (C&PE) department to streamline graduate advising, curricular and graduate recruitment activities. Later on, I served as department chair when the C&PE faculty implemented a five-year strategic plan with positive outcomes including the creation of a NSF engineering research center [the Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis, CEBC], increased external research funding, the addition of five new faculty lines for interdisciplinary initiatives in the areas of catalysis and bioengineering, and the successful mentoring and nominations of several faculty for teaching and research awards.
As CEBC director, a unique industry partnership program was implemented. In partnership with member companies (that have included ADM, BASF Catalysts, BP, ConocoPhillips, Chevron Phillips, DuPont, Eastman Chemicals, Evonik, ExxonMobil, Grace, Invista, Procter&Gamble, Novozymes, Reliance Industries, SABIC, SI Group, and UOP), the CEBC is developing and providing licensing opportunities for novel sustainable technologies related to fuels and chemicals.
Since its inception, the CEBC has launched several multidisciplinary research initiatives dealing with sustainable catalysis for producing fuels and chemicals with funding from federal, state and industry sources. The total funding from these sources is nearly $60 million since 2003, resulting in ~450 publications, 60 inventions, 18 patents, 6 licensed technologies, nearly 70 advanced graduate degrees, >50 postdoctoral researchers mentored and >50 undergraduate researchers trained. These successes have also resulted in the addition of several faculty members in the chemistry and C&PE departments. I chaired the recruitment of several of the current C&PE faculty members in the areas of catalysis, reactor engineering and materials science. I serve as mentor to several of the young faculty members recruited as part of these initiatives.
For nearly two decades, I have been active in external professional service focused on facilitating sustainable practices in the chemical process industries, including the use of biomass as a renewable feedstock to produce chemicals and fuels. I have served on several national and regional technical panels including the NSF/EPA panels on environmentally benign processing, and the Midwest Biomass Research & Development Initiative Roadmap panel. I served as the President of the International Symposia for Chemical Reaction Engineering (ISCRE, Inc.) during 2011-2012, and on the Board of Directors of the Organic Reactions Catalysis Society (ORCS) from 2010-2018. I am one of the founding members of the Great Plains Catalysis Society (GPCS) initiated in 2017 and currently serve as the Secretary of the organization.
I have served on the scientific and organizing committees of several international symposia in catalysis and reaction engineering, co-chairing the 18th International Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering (ISCRE-18, Chicago, 2004), the 2nd North American Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering (NASCRE-2, Houston, 2007) and the 2nd and 3rd Joint India-U.S. Chemical Engineering Conference on Energy and Sustainability (Chandigarh, 2008; Mumbai, 2013). In 2018, I chaired the Gordon Research Conference on Green Chemistry held in Barcelona, Spain.
I currently serve as Executive Editor of ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, a relatively new ACS journal launched to archive research advances in sustainability-related research in the chemistry and chemical engineering disciplines. I also serve on the editorial boards of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research (past), Applied Catalysis B, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, and Chemical Engineering Technology.
Ramanathan, A. Zhu, H. Maheswari, R. Thapa, P. S., & Subramaniam, B. (2015). A comparative study of Nb-incorporated cubic mesoporous silicates as epoxidation catalysts. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 54(16), 4236–4242. DOI:10.1021/ie504386g
Subramaniam, B. & Allen, D. (2018). ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Virtual Special Issue on Promoting the Development and Use of Quantitative Sustainabilty Metrics. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 6(4), 4422-4422. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b01268 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b01268
Allen, D. T., Hwang, B. Licence, P. Pradeep, T. & Subramaniam, B. (2015). Advancing the Use of Sustainability Metrics. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 3(10), 2359–2360/DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b01026.
Jin, X. Zhao, M. Yan, W. Zeng, C. Bobba, P. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Anisotropic Growth of PtFe Nanoclusters Induced by Lattice-Mismatch: Efficient Catalysts for Oxidation of Biopolyols to Carboxylic Acid Derivatives. Journal of Catalysis, 337, 272-283. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2016.02.015
Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). Barrierless tautomerization of Criegee intermediates via acid catalysis. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16, 22968 - 22973.
Subramaniam, B. (2017). Chemical Process Intensification with Pressure-Tunable Media. Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering, 51(6), 928-935.
Wu, J. Ramanathan, A. Biancardi, A. Jystad, A. M., Caricato, M. Hu, Y. & Subramaniam, B. (2018). Correlation of Active Site Precursors and Olefin Metathesis Activity in W-Incorporated Silicates. ACS Catalysis, 8(11), 10437-10445. DOI:10.1021/acscatal.8b03263 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.8b03263
Bode, C. J., Chapman, C. Pennybaker, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Developing Students’ Understanding of Industrially Relevant Economic and Life Cycle Assessments. Journal of Chemistry Education, 94(11), 1798-1801. DOI:10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00548
Xie, Z. & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Development of a Greener Hydroformylation Process Guided by Quantitative Sustainability Assessments. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 2, 2748−2757. DOI:10.1021/sc500483f
Nandiwale, K. Y., Danby, A. M., Ramanathan, A. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2019). Dual Function Lewis-acid Catalyzed Depolymerization of Corn Stover Lignin into Stable Monomeric Phenols. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 7, 1362-1371. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05077
Zhu, H. Ramanathan, A. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Effects of Tunable Acidity and Basicity of Nb-KIT-6 Catalysts on Ethanol Conversion: Experiments and Kinetic Modeling. AIChE Journal, 63(7), 2888-2899. DOI:10.1002/aic.15648
Liu, D. Xie, Z. Snavely, W. K., Chaudhari, R. & Subramaniam, B. (n.d.). Enhanced hydroformylation of 1-octene in n-butane expanded solvents with Co-based complexes. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering, 3(3), 344-352. DOI:10.1039/c8re00034d http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8re00034d
Wu, J. Ramanathan, A. Snavely, W. K., Zhu, H. Rokicki, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Enhanced metathesis of ethylene and 2-butene on tungsten incorporated ordered mesoporous silicates. Applied Catalysis A, 528, 142–149. DOI:10.1016/j.apcata.2016.10.004
Liu, D. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2018). Enhanced Solubility of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide in Propane- and Propylene-Expanded Liquids. AIChE Journal, 24(3), 970-980. DOI:10.1002/aic.15988
Ghanta, M. Fahey, D. R., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Environmental Impacts of Ethylene Production From Diverse Feedstocks and Energy Sources. Applied Petrochemical Research, 4, 167-179. DOI:10.1007/s13203-013-0029-7
Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (n.d.). Erratum: Ramanathan, A.; et al. Metal-Incorporated Mesoporous Silicates: Tunable Catalytic Properties and Applications. Molecules 2018, 23, 263. Molecules, 23(4), 853. DOI:10.3390/molecules23040853 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040853
Zhu, H. S., Maheswari, R. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly of Mesoporous Zirconium Silicates with Tunable Acidity and Facile Catalytic Dehydration Activity. Microporous & Mesoporous Materials, 223, 46-52. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2015.10.026
Jin, X. Zhao, M. Shen, J. Yan, W. He, L. Thapa, P. Ren, S. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2015). Exceptional Performance of Bimetallic Pt1Cu3/TiO2 Nanocatalysts for Oxidation of Gluconic Acid and Glucose with O2 to Glucaric Acid. Journal of Catalysis, 330, 323-329. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2015.05.018
Ramanathan, A. Maheswari, R. & Subramaniam, B. (2015). Facile styrene epoxidation over novel niobium containing cage type mesoporous silicate, Nb-KIT-5. Topics in Catalysis, 58(4-6), 314-324. DOI:10.1007/s11244. -015-0372-2
Xie, Z. Akien, G. A., Sarkar, B. R., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2015). Functionalized Polydimethylsiloxane-attached Rh-complexes as Nanofilterable Homogeneous Hydroformylation Catalysts. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 54(43), 10656-10660. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.5b02990
Zhu, H. Ramanathan, A. Wu, J. & Subramaniam, B. (2018). Genesis of Strong Brønsted Acid Sites in WZr-KIT-6 Catalysts and Enhancement of Ethanol Dehydration Activity. ACS Catalysis, 8(6), 4848-4859. DOI:10.1021/acscatal.8b00480 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.8b00480
Hong, C. Jin, X. Totleben, J. Lohrman, J. Harak, E. Subramaniam, B. Chaudhari, R. V., & Ren, S. (2014). Graphene Oxide Stabilized Cu2O for Shape Selective Nanocatalysis. Journal of Material Chemistry, 2, 8918-8925. DOI:10.1039/C4TA00599F
Uchagawkar, A. Ramanathan, A. Hu, Y. & Subramaniam, B. (2019). Highly Dispersed Molybdenum Containing Mesoporous Silicate for Olefin Metathesis. Catalysis Today. DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2019.03.073
Liu, D. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2018). Homogeneous catalytic hydroformylation of propylene in propane-expanded solvent media. Chemical Engineering Science, 187, 148-156. DOI:10.1016/j.ces.2018.04.071 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2018.04.071
Kumar, K. Chaudhari, R. V., Subramaniam, B. & Jackson, T. A. (2015). Importance of Long-Range Non-Covalent Interactions in the Regioselectivity of Rhodium-Xantphos Catalyzed Hydroformylation. Organometallics, 34(6), 1062-1073.
Lundin, M. D., Danby, A. M., Akien, G. R., Venkitasubramanian, P. Martin, K. J., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Intensified and Safe Ozonolysis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in Liquid CO2 in a Continuous Reactor. AIChE Journal, 63(7), 2819-2826. DOI:10.1002/aic.15630
Song, Z. Jin, X. Hu, Y. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2017). Intriguing Catalyst (CaO) Pretreatment Effects and Mechanistic Insights during Propylene Carbonate Transesterification with Methanol. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 5(6), 4718-4729. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b00095
Pan, Q. Ramanathan, A. Snavely, W. K., Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Intrinsic Kinetics of Ethanol Dehydration over Lewis Acidic Ordered Mesoporous Silicate, Zr-KIT-6. Topics in Catalysis, 57(17), 1407-1411. DOI:10.1007/s11244-014-0311-7
Li, M. Niu, F. Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Kinetic Investigations of p-Xylene Oxidation to Terephthalic Acid with a Co/Mn/Br Catalyst in a Homogeneous Liquid Phase. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 53(22), 9017–9026. DOI:10.1021/ie403446b
Wan, H. Vitter, A. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Kinetic Investigations of Unusual Solvent Effects During Ru/C Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Model Oxygenates. Journal of Catalysis, 309, 174-184. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2013.09.020
Jin, X. Bobba, P. Reding, N. Song, Z. Thapa, P. S., Prasad, G. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2017). Kinetic Modeling of Carboxylation of Propylene Oxide to Propylene Carbonate Using Ion-Exchange Resin Catalyst in A Semi-Batch Slurry Reactor. Chemical Engineering Science, 68, 189–203. DOI:10.1016/j.ces.2017.04.018
Jin, X. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Kinetic Modeling of Sorbitol Hydrogenolysis over Bimetallic RuRe/C Catalyst. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4(11), 6037-6047. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01346
Song, Z. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2018). Kinetic Study of CaO-Catalyzed Transesterification of Cyclic Carbonates with Methanol. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 57(44), 14977-14987. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.8b03837 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.8b03837
Zuo, X. Chaudhari, A. S., Snavely, K. W., Niu, F. Zhu, H. Martin, K. J., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Kinetics of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Oxidation to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid with Co/Mn/Br Catalyst. AIChE Journal, 63(1), 162-171. DOI:10.1002/aic.15497
Maiti, S. K., Snavely, W. K., Venkatasubramanian, P. Hagberg, E. Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2019). Kinetics of Selective Methyl Oleate Epoxidation with Venturello Complex Using Controlled Hydrogen Peroxide Addition. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 58(7), 2514-2523. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.8b05977
Jin, X. Zeng, C. Yan, W. Zhao, M. Bobba, P. Shi, H. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2017). Lattice Distortion Induced Electron Coupling Results in Exceptional Enhancement in the Activity of Bimetallic PtMn Nanocatalysts. Applied Catalysis A, 534, 46-57. DOI:10.1016/j.apcata.2017.01.021
Kumar, M. Chaudhari, R. V., Subramaniam, B. & Jackson, T. A. (2014). Ligand effects on the regioselectivity of rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation: Density functional theory calculations illuminate the role of dispersion interactions. Organometallics, 33(16), 4183-4191.
Lundin, M. D., Danby, A. M., Akien, G. A., Binder, T. J., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2015). Liquid CO2 as a Safer and Benign Solvent for the Ozonolysis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 3(12), 3307-3314. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00913
Yan, W. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Liquid Phase Ethylene Epoxidation Over W-KIT-6 and Nb-KIT-6 Catalysts Using Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Catalysis Science and Technology, 4(12), 4433–4439. DOI:10.1039/c4cy00877d
Yan, W. Ramanathan, A. Patel, P. D., Maiti, S. K., Laird, B. B., Thompson, H. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Mechanistic Insights for Enhancing Activity and Stability of Nb-incorporated Silicates for Selective Ethylene Epoxidation. Journal of Catalysis, 336, 75-84. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2015.12.022
Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2018). Metal-Incorporated Mesoporous Silicates: Tunable Catalytic Properties and Applications. Molecules, 23(2), 263. DOI:10.3390/molecules23020263 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020263
Jin, X. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Microkinetic Modeling of Pt/C Catalyzed Aqueous Phase Glycerol Conversion with In Situ Formed Hydrogen. AIChE J, 62, 1162–1173. DOI:10.1002/aic.15114
Nash, C. P., Ramanathan, A. Ruddy, D. A., Behl, M. Gjersing, E. Griffin, M. Zhu, H. Subramaniam, B. Schaidle, J. A., & Hensley, J. E. (2016). Mixed Alcohol Dehydration over Brønsted and Lewis Acidic Catalysts. Applied Catalysis A. General, 510, 110-124. DOI:10.1016/j.apcata.2015.11.019
Ramanathan, A. Maheswari, R. Barich, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Niobium incorporated mesoporous silicate, Nb-KIT-6: Synthesis and characterization. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 190, 240-247. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2014.02.019
Wu, J. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Novel Tungsten-incorporated Mesoporous Silicates Synthesized via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly: Enhanced Metathesis Performance. Journal of Catalysis, 350, 182-188. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2017.02.014
Ramanathan, A. Zhu, H. Maheswari, R. & Subramaniam, B. (2015). Novel Zirconium Containing Cage Type Silicate (Zr-KIT-5): An Efficient Alkylation Catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal, 278, 113-121. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2014.11.099
Zuo, X. Venkitasubramanian, P. Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Optimization of Co/Mn/Br-catalyzed oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to enhance 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid yield and minimize substrate burning. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4(7), 3659–3668. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00174
Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). Organic Acids Tunably Catalyze Carbonic Acid Decomposition. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 118(27), 5020-5028. DOI:10.1021/jp5037469
Shi, H. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2018). Oxidation of Glucose Using Mono- and Bimetallic Catalysts under Base-Free Conditions. Organic Process Research & Development, 22(12), 1653-1662. DOI:10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00302 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00302
Jin, X. Zhao, M. Zeng, C. Yan, W. Song, Z. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Oxidation of Glycerol to Carboxylic Acids Using Cobalt Catalysts. ACS Catalysis, 6, 4576–4583.
Silverman, J. S., Danby, A. M., & Subramaniam, B. (2019). Ozonolysis of Lignins in a Spray Reactor: Insights into Product Yields and Lignin Structure. Reaction Chemistry and Engineering, . DOI:10.1039/C9RE00098D
Subramanian, B. (2015). Perspectives on Exploiting Near-Critical Fluids for Energy-Efficient Catalytic Conversion of Emerging Feedstocks. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 96, 96-102. DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2014.09.032
Jin, X. Zeng, C. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2017). Phase Transformed PtFe Nanocomposites Show Enhanced Catalytic Performances in Oxidation of Glycerol to Tartronic Acid. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 56(45), 13157-13164. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.7b01473
Srinivasan, V. V., Ranoux, A. Maheswari, R. Hanefeld, U. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Potential applications of Zr-KIT-5: Hantzsch reaction, Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley (MPV) reduction of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone and Prins reaction of citronellal. Research on Chemical Intermediates, 42(3), 2399-2408. DOI:10.1007/s11164-015-2157-4
Subramaniam, B. Helling, R. K., & Bode, C. J. (2016). Quantitative sustainability analysis: A powerful tool to develop resource-efficient catalytic technologies. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4, 5859-5865. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01571
Ramanathan, A. Zhu, H. Maheswari, R. & Subramaniam, B. (2018). Remarkable Epoxidation Activity of Neat and Carbonized Niobium Silicates Prepared by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 261, 158-163. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2017.10.049
Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). Role of Tunable Acid Catalysis in Decomposition of α‑Hydroxyalkyl Hydroperoxides and Mechanistic Implications for Tropospheric Chemistry. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16, 22968-22973.
Jin, X. Shen, J. Yan, W. Zhao, M. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2015). Sorbitol Hydrogenolysis over Hybrid Cu/CaO-Al2O3 Catalysts: Tunable Activity and Selectivity with Solid Base Incorporation. ACS Catalysis, 5(11), 6545-6558. DOI:10.1021/acscatal.5b01324
Maiti, S. K., Ramanathan, A. Thompson, W. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Strategies to Passivate Brønsted Acidity in Nb-TUD-1 Enhance Hydrogen Peroxide Utilization and Reduce Metal Leaching during Ethylene Epoxidation. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 56(8), 1999-2007. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.6b04723
Subramaniam, B. Chaudhari, R. V., Chaudhari, A. S., Akien, G. R., & Xie, Z. (2014). Supercritical Fluids and Gas-expanded Liquids as Tunable Media for Multiphase Catalytic Reactions. Chemical Engineering Science, 115, 3-18. DOI:10.1016/j.ces.2014.03.001
Jin, X. Zhao, M. Vora, M. Shen, J. Zeng, C. Yan, W. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Synergistic Effects of Bimetallic PtPd/TiO2 Nanocatalysts in Oxidation of Glucose to Glucaric Acid: Structure Dependent Activity and Selectivity. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 55(11), 2932-2945. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.5b04841
Ramanathan, A. Wu, J. Maheswari, R. Hu, Y. & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Synthesis of Molybdenum-Incorporated Mesoporous Silicates by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly: Insights into Surface Oxide Species and Corresponding Olefin Metathesis Activity. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 245, 118-125. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2017.03.001
Maheswari, R. Pachamuthu, M. P., Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Synthesis, Characterization and Epoxidation Activity of Tungsten-Incorporated SBA-16 (W-SBA-16). Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 53(49), 18833–18839. DOI:10.1021/ie501784c
Li, M. Ruddy, T. Fahey, D. R., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Terephthalic Acid Production Via Greener Spray Process: Comparative Economic and Environmental Impact Assessments with Mid-Century Process. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 2(4), 823–835. DOI:10.1021/sc4004778
Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). The Criegee Intermediate Reaction with CO. Mechanism, Barriers, Conformer-Dependence, and Implications for Ozonolysis Chemistry. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 118(10), 1887-1894. DOI:10.1021/jp500258h
Allen, D. T., Hwang, B. Licence, P. Pradeep, T. & Subramaniam, B. (2015). The Impact of ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 3(7), 1262–1262/DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00549.
Leon, A. Y., Guzman, A. Laverde, D. Chaudhari, R. V., Subramaniam, B. & Bravo-Suarez, J. J. (2017). Thermal Cracking and Catalytic Hydrocracking of a Colombian Vacuum Residue and its Maltenes and Asphaltenes Fractions in Toluene. Energy and Fuels, 31(4), 3868-3877. DOI:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b00078
Song, Z. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2019). Transesterification of Propylene Carbonate with Methanol using Fe-Mn Double Metal Cyanide Catalyst. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 7(6), 5698-5710 . DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b04779
Imran, G. Srinivasan, V. V., Maheswari, R. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Unique Characteristics of MnOx-incorporated Mesoporous Silicate, Mn-FDU-5, Prepared via Evaporation Induced Self Assembly. Journal of Porous Materials, 23(1), 35-46. DOI:10.1007/s10934-015-0055-1
Danby, A. M., Lundin, M. D., & Subramaniam, B. (2018). Valorization of Grass Lignins: Swift and Selective Recovery of Pendant Aromatic Groups with Ozone. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 6(1), 71-76. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b02978
Nandiwale, K. v., Danby, A. M., Ramanathan, A. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Zirconium Incorporated Mesoporous Silicates Show Remarkable Lignin Depolymerization Activity. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 5(8), 7155-7164. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b01344