Bala Subramaniam

School of Engineering - Chemical & Petroleum Engineering
Dan F. Servey Distinguished Professor
Primary office:
785-864-2903
Learned Hall
Room 4156
University of Kansas
1530 West 15th Street
Lawrence, KS 66045
Second office:
785-864-2903
Wakarusa Research Facility
Room A110



Summary

Bala Subramaniam is the Dan F. Servey Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Kansas (KU). Subramaniam earned a B.Tech. in Chemical Engineering from the A. C. College of Technology, Chennai, India and his Ph. D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Notre Dame. He has also held visiting professorships at the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom and Institute of Process Engineering, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.

Subramaniam's research interests are in catalysis, reaction engineering and crystallization. In particular, his research harnesses the pressure-tunable physicochemical properties of unconventional solvents such as supercritical fluids and gas-expanded liquids in multiphase catalysis to develop resource-efficient technologies with reduced environmental footprint. He has authored 170+ refereed research publications and 28 issued patents, edited 2 books, presented invited seminars at nearly 100 academic institutions and companies, and given keynote/plenary lectures at nearly 50 conferences.

Subramaniam is the Director of the Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC), initiated as a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center (NSF-ERC), and now a successful center known for its unique industry collaboration model and multi-scale approach to delivering innovations. In partnership with member companies (including ADM, BASF Catalysts, BP, ConocoPhillips, Chevron Phillips, DuPont, Eastman Chemicals, Evonik, ExxonMobil, Grace, Invista, Procter&Gamble, Reliance Industries, SABIC, Solvay and UOP), the CEBC is developing and providing licensing opportunities for novel sustainable technologies related to fuels and chemicals. Subramaniam is also a co-founder of CritiTech, Inc., a pharmaceutical company with a mission to commercialize the production of fine-particle compounds based on his group's inventions.

Subramaniam is the associate editor of ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering and chair-elect of the 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Green Chemistry. He serves on the editorial boards of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Engineering Technology. He has also been on the scientific and organizing committees of several international symposia in catalysis and reaction engineering, co-chairing the Eighteenth International Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering (ISCRE-18, Chicago, 2004) and the Joint India-U.S. Chemical Engineering Conference on Energy and Sustainability (Mumbai, 2013). He has also served as the President of ISCRE, Inc., and serves on the Board of Directors of the Organic Chemical Reactions Society (ORCS).

Subramaniam has received several awards for teaching and research, including the Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award from the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE); a Silver Anniversary Teaching Award and H.O.P.E. (Honor for the Outstanding Progressive Educator) award finalist recognitions from KU; the Henry Gould Award for Teaching and a Sharp Teaching Professorship from the KU School of Engineering; Higuchi Research Achievement Award, the highest recognition for research given by KU; a "Distinguished Catalyst Researcher" lectureship from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; and a "Chemcon Distinguished Lectureship Award" from the Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers. Subramaniam is a Fellow of the AIChE, the ACS Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Division, and the National Academy of Inventors.

Education

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame

M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame

B. Tech., Chemical Engineering, A. C. College of Technology, University of Madras

Teaching

Creative solutions to engineering problems require a sound complement of fundamental knowledge, intuition, imagination and critical thinking. I believe that a teacher has a vital role and challenge in fostering these attributes in students. My teaching methods are aimed at achieving this goal. In the theory courses, I show how engineering equations are essentially 'math-based languages' or models that aid our understanding of physical and chemical processes. I constantly encourage students to assess if the process behavior predicted by the model makes intuitive sense. Given that commercial software is invariably used for equation-solving and design purposes, it is especially essential to develop such an understanding and intuitive feel for interpreting results from computer simulations. I provide examples of how theories and equations have been used to develop engineering solutions in everyday life. In addition to traditional homework assignments that emphasize fundamentals and solution procedures, I assign two to three open-ended projects that are comprehensive in nature. These projects address industrially important problems and require students to integrate fundamental knowledge, intuition and imagination in critically analyzing and designing sustainable engineering processes that are resource-efficient (i.e., conserve feedstock and energy). I emphasize how resource-efficient technologies not only make good business sense but also are inherently green.

I believe that the laboratory courses provide a vital forum for not only reinforcing theoretical concepts but also developing essential experimental, data analysis, troubleshooting, team work and communication skills. The analysis/interpretation of experimental data form the basis for the preparation of various types of written reports (journal-type, memos, etc.) and oral presentations. Prior to each laboratory session, I require student teams to make concise presentations about their planned work and to rigorously defend their work plan. Besides providing training in oral and written communication skills, this process also helps students to solidify their understanding of theory.

Clear statement of course goals and expectations, effective lectures and notes, challenging yet fair assignments and tests, and accessibility to students are all essential to a positive learning experience -- one that motivates students' desire to learn and to excel. My teaching methods continue to evolve as I have learned more about teaching tips and techniques from student/peer feedback and from periodicals such as the Teaching Professor and Chemical Engineering Education, especially those that use modern technology-based classrooms to deliver instruction in novel ways.

My major teaching interests are in the areas of chemical engineering kinetics, reactor design, industrial development of sustainable catalytic processes, transport phenomena, mathematical methods in chemical engineering, and supercritical fluid technology.

Teaching Interests

  • Chemical engineering kinetics and reactor design
  • Mass transfer
  • Mathematical methods in chemical engineering
  • Industrial development of sustainable catalytic processes
  • Chemical engineering unit operations laboratories
  • Undergraduate and graduate courses.

Research

The modern day 'petrochemical' refinery relies primarily on fossil-based feedstock (such as petroleum, natural gas and coal) to produce the essential chemical intermediates for everyday products (medicines, packaging materials, synthetic fibers, detergents, coolants, etc.). To meet the sharply increasing global demand for such products, alternate feedstocks such as plant-based biomass and shale gas are also being considered to make these chemical intermediates. These alternate sources, however, require the development of new technologies. Our research is focused on developing resource-efficient technologies, which conserve feedstock and energy, for both conventional and emerging sources. We address this challenge by discovering catalysts that selectively transform the feedstock to desired products minimizing waste, using tunable solvents that provide both reaction benefits and environmental benefits such as reduced toxicity and carbon footprints, and developing novel reactors that are energy-efficient in converting raw materials to products. Working in collaboration with several industry partners of the Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC), we have demonstrated such novel alternative technologies for many important chemical intermediates. In addition to economic assessment, we also perform cradle-to-grave life cycle analysis (LCA) of the new technologies to assess environmental performance and sustainability. One such technology for making ethylene oxide (a plastic precursor) received a prestigious award from the American Chemical Society. Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), a global leader in agricultural processing, recently opened research operations in Lawrence, KS to work closely with University of Kansas CEBC researchers to develop technologies that convert ADM's myriad plant-based feedstocks to value-added products. Such collaborations have been augmented by funding from federal agencies (US Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation and Environmental Protection Agency) to the tune of nearly $17 million since 2011. The development of such technologies has significant economic implications for the State of Kansas given its unique mix of natural resources that include not only plant-based biomass but also natural gas, crude oil and wind energy potential. A manufacturing sector built around these resources can be thriving and make Kansas among the global leaders in the manufacture and export of "renewable chemicals".

More details of the research program and a list of selected publications may be found in the "Research Interests" section of this website.

Research Interests

  • Catalysis and reaction engineering for resource-efficient chemicals/fuels production from conventional and biomass feedstocks
  • Exploiting supercritical and gas-expanded liquids in crystallization and benign chemicals/fuels processing

Service

I have been active in service activities at both the University of Kansas and the professional societies [American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and the American Chemical Society (ACS)]. I especially like roles where I am able to contribute to transformational changes that have long-term beneficial impacts on the institutions I serve.

I have served as graduate advisor of the chemical and petroleum engineering (C&PE) department to streamline graduate advising, curricular and graduate recruitment activities. Later on, I served as department chair when the C&PE faculty implemented a five-year strategic plan with positive outcomes including the creation of a NSF engineering research center [the Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis, CEBC], increased external research funding, the addition of five new faculty lines for interdisciplinary initiatives in the areas of catalysis and bioengineering, and the successful mentoring and nominations of several faculty for teaching and research awards.

As CEBC director, a unique industry partnership program was implemented. In partnership with member companies (that have included ADM, BASF Catalysts, BP, ConocoPhillips, Chevron Phillips, DuPont, Eastman Chemicals, Evonik, ExxonMobil, Grace, Invista, Procter&Gamble, Novozymes, Reliance Industries, SABIC, SI Group, and UOP), the CEBC is developing and providing licensing opportunities for novel sustainable technologies related to fuels and chemicals.

Since its inception, the CEBC has launched several multidisciplinary research initiatives dealing with sustainable catalysis for producing fuels and chemicals with funding from federal, state and industry sources. The total funding from these sources exceeds $50 million since 2003. These successes have resulted in the addition of several faculty members in the chemistry and C&PE departments. I chaired the recruitment of several of the current C&PE faculty members in the areas of catalysis, reactor engineering and materials science. I serve as mentor to several of the young faculty members recruited as part of these initiatives.

For nearly two decades, I have been active in external professional service focused on facilitating sustainable practices in the chemical process industries, including the use of biomass as a renewable feedstock to produce chemicals and fuels. I have served on several national and regional technical panels including the NSF/EPA panels on environmentally benign processing, and the Midwest Biomass Research & Development Initiative Roadmap panel. I served as the President of the International Symposia for Chemical Reaction Engineering (ISCRE, Inc.) during 2011-2012, and currently serve on the Board of Directors of the Organic Reactions Catalysis Society (ORCS). I have served on the scientific and organizing committees of several international symposia in catalysis and reaction engineering, co-chairing the 18th International Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering (ISCRE-18, Chicago, 2004), the 2nd North American Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering (NASCRE-2, Houston, 2007) and the 2nd and 3rd Joint India-U.S. Chemical Engineering Conference on Energy and Sustainability (Chandigarh, 2008; Mumbai, 2013).

I currently serve as Associate Editor of ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, a new ACS journal launched to archive research advances in sustainability-related research in the chemistry and chemical engineering disciplines. I also serve on the editorial boards of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research (past), Applied Catalysis B, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, and Chemical Engineering Technology.

Selected Publications

Subramaniam, B. (in press). Chemical Process Intensification with Pressure-Tunable Media. Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering.

Bode, C. J., Chapman, C. Pennybaker, A. & Subramaniam, B. (in press). Developing Students’ Understanding of Industrially Relevant Economic and Life Cycle Assessments. Journal of Chemistry Education. DOI:10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00548

Liu, D. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (in press). Enhanced Solubility of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide in Propane- and Propylene-Expanded Liquids. AIChE Journal. DOI:10.1002/aic.15988

Jin, X. Zeng, C. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (in press). Phase Transformed PtFe Nanocomposites Show Enhanced Catalytic Performances in Oxidation of Glycerol to Tartronic Acid. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.7b01473

Zhu, H. Ramanathan, A. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Effects of Tunable Acidity and Basicity of Nb-KIT-6 Catalysts on Ethanol Conversion: Experiments and Kinetic Modeling. AIChE Journal, 63(7), 2888-2899. DOI:10.1002/aic.15648

Lundin, M. D., Danby, A. M., Akien, G. R., Venkitasubramanian, P. Martin, K. J., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Intensified and Safe Ozonolysis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in Liquid CO2 in a Continuous Reactor. AIChE Journal, 63(7), 2819-2826. DOI:10.1002/aic.15630

Song, Z. Jin, X. Hu, Y. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2017). Intriguing Catalyst (CaO) Pretreatment Effects and Mechanistic Insights during Propylene Carbonate Transesterification with Methanol. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 5(6), 4718-4729. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b00095

Jin, X. Bobba, P. Reding, N. Song, Z. Thapa, P. S., Prasad, G. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2017). Kinetic Modeling of Carboxylation of Propylene Oxide to Propylene Carbonate Using Ion-Exchange Resin Catalyst in A Semi-Batch Slurry Reactor. Chemical Engineering Science, 68, 189–203. DOI:10.1016/j.ces.2017.04.018

Zuo, X. Chaudhari, A. S., Snavely, K. W., Niu, F. Zhu, H. Martin, K. J., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Kinetics of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Oxidation to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid with Co/Mn/Br Catalyst. AIChE Journal, 63(1), 162-171. DOI:10.1002/aic.15497

Jin, X. Zeng, C. Yan, W. Zhao, M. Bobba, P. Shi, H. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2017). Lattice Distortion Induced Electron Coupling Results in Exceptional Enhancement in the Activity of Bimetallic PtMn Nanocatalysts. Applied Catalysis A, 534, 46-57. DOI:10.1016/j.apcata.2017.01.021

Wu, J. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Novel Tungsten-incorporated Mesoporous Silicates Synthesized via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly: Enhanced Metathesis Performance. Journal of Catalysis, 350, 182-188. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2017.02.014

Maiti, S. K., Ramanathan, A. Thompson, W. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Strategies to Passivate Brønsted Acidity in Nb-TUD-1 Enhance Hydrogen Peroxide Utilization and Reduce Metal Leaching during Ethylene Epoxidation. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 56(8), 1999-2007. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.6b04723

Ramanathan, A. Wu, J. Maheswari, R. Hu, Y. & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Synthesis of Molybdenum-Incorporated Mesoporous Silicates by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly: Insights into Surface Oxide Species and Corresponding Olefin Metathesis Activity. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 245, 118-125. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2017.03.001

Leon, A. Y., Guzman, A. Laverde, D. Chaudhari, R. V., Subramaniam, B. & Bravo-Suarez, J. J. (2017). Thermal Cracking and Catalytic Hydrocracking of a Colombian Vacuum Residue and its Maltenes and Asphaltenes Fractions in Toluene. Energy and Fuels, 31(4), 3868-3877. DOI:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b00078

Nandiwale, K. v., Danby, A. M., Ramanathan, A. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2017). Zirconium Incorporated Mesoporous Silicates Show Remarkable Lignin Depolymerization Activity. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 5(8), 7155-7164. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b01344

Jin, X. Zhao, M. Yan, W. Zeng, C. Bobba, P. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Anisotropic Growth of PtFe Nanoclusters Induced by Lattice-Mismatch: Efficient Catalysts for Oxidation of Biopolyols to Carboxylic Acid Derivatives. Journal of Catalysis, 337, 272-283. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2016.02.015

Wu, J. Ramanathan, A. Snavely, W. K., Zhu, H. Rokicki, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Enhanced metathesis of ethylene and 2-butene on tungsten incorporated ordered mesoporous silicates. Applied Catalysis A, 528, 142–149. DOI:10.1016/j.apcata.2016.10.004

Jin, X. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Kinetic Modeling of Sorbitol Hydrogenolysis over Bimetallic RuRe/C Catalyst. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4(11), 6037-6047. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01346

Nash, C. P., Ramanathan, A. Ruddy, D. A., Behl, M. Gjersing, E. Griffin, M. Zhu, H. Subramaniam, B. Schaidle, J. A., & Hensley, J. E. (2016). Mixed Alcohol Dehydration over Brønsted and Lewis Acidic Catalysts. Applied Catalysis A. General, 510, 110-124. DOI:10.1016/j.apcata.2015.11.019

Zuo, X. Venkitasubramanian, P. Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Optimization of Co/Mn/Br-catalyzed oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to enhance 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid yield and minimize substrate burning. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4(7), 3659–3668. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00174

Jin, X. Zhao, M. Zeng, C. Yan, W. Song, Z. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Oxidation of Glycerol to Carboxylic Acids Using Cobalt Catalysts. ACS Catalysis, 6, 4576–4583.

Subramaniam, B. Helling, R. K., & Bode, C. J. (2016). Quantitative sustainability analysis: A powerful tool to develop resource-efficient catalytic technologies. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4, 5859-5865. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01571

Jin, X. Zhao, M. Vora, M. Shen, J. Zeng, C. Yan, W. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Synergistic Effects of Bimetallic PtPd/TiO2 Nanocatalysts in Oxidation of Glucose to Glucaric Acid: Structure Dependent Activity and Selectivity. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 55(11), 2932-2945. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.5b04841

Imran, G. Srinivasan, V. V., Maheswari, R. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Unique Characteristics of MnOx-incorporated Mesoporous Silicate, Mn-FDU-5, Prepared via Evaporation Induced Self Assembly. Journal of Porous Materials, 23(1), 35-46. DOI:10.1007/s10934-015-0055-1

Yan, W. Ramanathan, A. Patel, P. D., Maiti, S. K., Laird, B. B., Thompson, H. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Mechanistic Insights for Enhancing Activity and Stability of Nb-incorporated Silicates for Selective Ethylene Epoxidation. Journal of Catalysis, 336, 75-84. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2015.12.022

Srinivasan, V. V., Ranoux, A. Maheswari, R. Hanefeld, U. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Potential applications of Zr-KIT-5: Hantzsch reaction, Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley (MPV) reduction of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone and Prins reaction of citronellal. Research on Chemical Intermediates, 42(3), 2399-2408. DOI:10.1007/s11164-015-2157-4

Zhu, H. S., Maheswari, R. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2016). Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly of Mesoporous Zirconium Silicates with Tunable Acidity and Facile Catalytic Dehydration Activity. Microporous & Mesoporous Materials, 223, 46-52. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2015.10.026

Jin, X. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2016). Microkinetic Modeling of Pt/C Catalyzed Aqueous Phase Glycerol Conversion with In Situ Formed Hydrogen. AIChE J, 62, 1162–1173. DOI:10.1002/aic.15114

Ramanathan, A. Zhu, H. Maheswari, R. Thapa, P. S., & Subramaniam, B. (2015). A comparative study of Nb-incorporated cubic mesoporous silicates as epoxidation catalysts. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 54(16), 4236–4242. DOI:10.1021/ie504386g

Allen, D. T., Hwang, B. Licence, P. Pradeep, T. & Subramaniam, B. (2015). Advancing the Use of Sustainability Metrics. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 3(10), 2359–2360/DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b01026.

Jin, X. Zhao, M. Shen, J. Yan, W. He, L. Thapa, P. Ren, S. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2015). Exceptional Performance of Bimetallic Pt1Cu3/TiO2 Nanocatalysts for Oxidation of Gluconic Acid and Glucose with O2 to Glucaric Acid. Journal of Catalysis, 330, 323-329. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2015.05.018

Ramanathan, A. Maheswari, R. & Subramaniam, B. (2015). Facile styrene epoxidation over novel niobium containing cage type mesoporous silicate, Nb-KIT-5. Topics in Catalysis, 58(4-6), 314-324. DOI:10.1007/s11244. -015-0372-2

Xie, Z. Akien, G. A., Sarkar, B. R., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2015). Functionalized Polydimethylsiloxane-attached Rh-complexes as Nanofilterable Homogeneous Hydroformylation Catalysts. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 54(43), 10656-10660. DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.5b02990

Kumar, K. Chaudhari, R. V., Subramaniam, B. & Jackson, T. A. (2015). Importance of Long-Range Non-Covalent Interactions in the Regioselectivity of Rhodium-Xantphos Catalyzed Hydroformylation. Organometallics, 34(6), 1062-1073.

Lundin, M. D., Danby, A. M., Akien, G. A., Binder, T. J., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2015). Liquid CO2 as a Safer and Benign Solvent for the Ozonolysis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 3(12), 3307-3314. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00913

Ramanathan, A. Zhu, H. Maheswari, R. & Subramaniam, B. (2015). Novel Zirconium Containing Cage Type Silicate (Zr-KIT-5): An Efficient Alkylation Catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal, 278, 113-121. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2014.11.099

Subramanian, B. (2015). Perspectives on Exploiting Near-Critical Fluids for Energy-Efficient Catalytic Conversion of Emerging Feedstocks. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 96, 96-102. DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2014.09.032

Jin, X. Shen, J. Yan, W. Zhao, M. Thapa, P. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2015). Sorbitol Hydrogenolysis over Hybrid Cu/CaO-Al2O3 Catalysts: Tunable Activity and Selectivity with Solid Base Incorporation. ACS Catalysis, 5(11), 6545-6558. DOI:10.1021/acscatal.5b01324

Allen, D. T., Hwang, B. Licence, P. Pradeep, T. & Subramaniam, B. (2015). The Impact of ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 3(7), 1262–1262/DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00549.

Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). Barrierless tautomerization of Criegee intermediates via acid catalysis. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16, 22968 - 22973.

Xie, Z. & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Development of a Greener Hydroformylation Process Guided by Quantitative Sustainability Assessments. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 2, 2748−2757. DOI:10.1021/sc500483f

Ghanta, M. Fahey, D. R., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Environmental Impacts of Ethylene Production From Diverse Feedstocks and Energy Sources. Applied Petrochemical Research, 4, 167-179. DOI:10.1007/s13203-013-0029-7

Hong, C. Jin, X. Totleben, J. Lohrman, J. Harak, E. Subramaniam, B. Chaudhari, R. V., & Ren, S. (2014). Graphene Oxide Stabilized Cu2O for Shape Selective Nanocatalysis. Journal of Material Chemistry, 2, 8918-8925. DOI:10.1039/C4TA00599F

Pan, Q. Ramanathan, A. Snavely, W. K., Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Intrinsic Kinetics of Ethanol Dehydration over Lewis Acidic Ordered Mesoporous Silicate, Zr-KIT-6. Topics in Catalysis, 57(17), 1407-1411. DOI:10.1007/s11244-014-0311-7

Li, M. Niu, F. Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Kinetic Investigations of p-Xylene Oxidation to Terephthalic Acid with a Co/Mn/Br Catalyst in a Homogeneous Liquid Phase. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 53(22), 9017–9026. DOI:10.1021/ie403446b

Wan, H. Vitter, A. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Kinetic Investigations of Unusual Solvent Effects During Ru/C Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Model Oxygenates. Journal of Catalysis, 309, 174-184. DOI:10.1016/j.jcat.2013.09.020

Kumar, M. Chaudhari, R. V., Subramaniam, B. & Jackson, T. A. (2014). Ligand effects on the regioselectivity of rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation: Density functional theory calculations illuminate the role of dispersion interactions. Organometallics, 33(16), 4183-4191.

Yan, W. Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Liquid Phase Ethylene Epoxidation Over W-KIT-6 and Nb-KIT-6 Catalysts Using Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Catalysis Science and Technology, 4(12), 4433–4439. DOI:10.1039/c4cy00877d

Ramanathan, A. Maheswari, R. Barich, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Niobium incorporated mesoporous silicate, Nb-KIT-6: Synthesis and characterization. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 190, 240-247. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2014.02.019

Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). Organic Acids Tunably Catalyze Carbonic Acid Decomposition. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 118(27), 5020-5028. DOI:10.1021/jp5037469

Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). Role of Tunable Acid Catalysis in Decomposition of α‑Hydroxyalkyl Hydroperoxides and Mechanistic Implications for Tropospheric Chemistry. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 118(41), 9701-9711. DOI:10.1021/jp505100x

Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). Role of Tunable Acid Catalysis in Decomposition of α‑Hydroxyalkyl Hydroperoxides and Mechanistic Implications for Tropospheric Chemistry. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16, 22968-22973.

Subramaniam, B. Chaudhari, R. V., Chaudhari, A. S., Akien, G. R., & Xie, Z. (2014). Supercritical Fluids and Gas-expanded Liquids as Tunable Media for Multiphase Catalytic Reactions. Chemical Engineering Science, 115, 3-18. DOI:10.1016/j.ces.2014.03.001

Maheswari, R. Pachamuthu, M. P., Ramanathan, A. & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Synthesis, Characterization and Epoxidation Activity of Tungsten-Incorporated SBA-16 (W-SBA-16). Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 53(49), 18833–18839. DOI:10.1021/ie501784c

Li, M. Ruddy, T. Fahey, D. R., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2014). Terephthalic Acid Production Via Greener Spray Process: Comparative Economic and Environmental Impact Assessments with Mid-Century Process. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 2(4), 823–835. DOI:10.1021/sc4004778

Kumar, M. Busch, D. H., Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, W. H. (2014). The Criegee Intermediate Reaction with CO. Mechanism, Barriers, Conformer-Dependence, and Implications for Ozonolysis Chemistry. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 118(10), 1887-1894. DOI:10.1021/jp500258h

Jin, X. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2013). Activity and Selectivity of Base Promoted Mono and Bimetallic Catalysts for Hydrogenolysis of Xylitol and Sorbitol. In Novel Materials for Catalysis and Fuels Processing, ACS Symposium Series 1132; American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., Vol 1132, pp 273-285. DOI:10.1021/bk-2013-1132.ch012

Bravo-Suárez, J. J., Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Design of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Fuels and Chemicals Processing: An Overview. In Novel Materials for Catalysis and Fuels Processing, ACS Symposium Series 1132; American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., Vol. 1132, pp 3-68. DOI:10.1021/bk-2013-1132.ch001

Ramanathan, A. Maheswari, R. Thapa, P. S., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Rapid room temperature synthesis of Ce-MCM-48: an active catalyst for trans-stilbene epoxidation with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. In Novel Materials for Catalysis and Fuels Processing, ACS Symposium Series 1132, American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., Vol. 1132, pp 213-228. DOI:10.1021/bk-2013-1132.ch008

Li, M. Niu, F. Zuo, X. Metelski, P. D., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). A Spray Reactor Concept for Catalytic Oxidation of p-Xylene to Produce High-purity Terephthalic Acid. Chemical Engineering Science, 104, 93-102. DOI:0.1016/j.ces.2013.09.004i

Wan, H. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Aqueous Phase Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid and Its Promotional Effect on p-Cresol Hydrodeoxygenation. Energy & Fuels, 27(1), 487-493. DOI:10.1021/ef301400c

Jin, X. Roy, D. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2013). Atom Economical, Aqueous Phase Conversion (APC) of Biopolyols to Lactic Acid, Glycols and Linear Alcohols using Supported Metal Catalysts. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 1(11), 1453-1462. DOI:

Ghanta, M. Fahey, D. R., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Comparative Economic and Environmental Assessments of H2O2-based and Tertiary Butyl Hydroperoxide-based Propylene Oxide Technologies. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 1(2), 268-277.

Xie, Z. Fang, J. Maiti, S. K., Snavely, W. K., Tunge, J. A., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Continuous Membrane Reactor for Enhanced Hydroformylation in Carbon Dioxide-Expanded Liquids with Effective Rh Retention. AIChE Journal, 59(11), 4287-4296. DOI:10.1002/aic.14142

Ghanta, M. Lee, H. Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Highly Selective Homogeneous Ethylene Epoxidation in Gas (Ethylene)-Expanded Liquid: Transport and Kinetic Studies. AIChE Journal, 59, 180-187. DOI:10.1002/aic.13789

Ghanta, M. Ruddy, T. Fahey, D. R., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Is the Liquid-Phase H2O2-based Ethylene Oxide Process More Economical and Greener Than the Gas-Phase O2-based Silver-Catalyzed Process? Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 52, 18-29. DOI:10.1021/ie301601y

Jin, X. Dang, L. Lohrman, J. Subramaniam, B. Ren, S. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2013). Lattice-Matched Bimetallic CuPd-Graphene Nanocatalysts for Facile Conversion of Biomass-Derived Polyols to Chemicals. ACS Nano, 7(2), 1309–1316. DOI:10.1021/nn304820v

Chaudhari, R. V., Torres, A. Jin, X. & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Multiphase Catalytic Hydrogenolysis/Hydrodeoxygenation Processes for Chemicals from Renewable Feedstocks: Kinetics, Mechanism, and Reaction Engineering. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 52(44), 15226-15243. DOI:10.1021/ie400709d

Pan, Q. Ramanathan, A. Snavely, W. K., Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Synthesis and Dehydration Activity of Novel Lewis Acidic Ordered Mesoporous Silicate: Zr-KIT-6. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 52, 15481−15487. DOI:

Ramanathan, A. Subramaniam, B. Maheswari, R. & Hanefeld, U. (2013). Synthesis, and characterization of Zirconium incorporated ultra large pore mesoporous silicate, Zr-KIT-6. Microporous & Mesoporous Materials, 167, 207–212. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2012.09.008

Ramanathan, A. Maheswari, R. Grady, B. P., Moore, D. S., Barich, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2013). Tungsten-incorporated cage-type mesoporous silicate: W-KIT-5. Microporous & Mesoporous Materials, 175, 43-49. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2013.03.019

Bravo-Suárez, J. J., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2013). Vapor-Phase Methanol and Ethanol Coupling Reactions on CuMgAl Mixed Metal Oxides. Applied Catalysis A: General, 455, 234-246. DOI:10.1016/j.apcata.2013.01.025

Subramaniam, B. (2012). Gas-Expanded Liquids for Sustainable Catalysis. In R. A. Meyers (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (pp. 3933-3955). New York: Springer.

Niu, F. Haslam, J. Rajewski, R. A., & Subramaniam, B. (2012). A Fluid-Bed Coating Technology Using Near-critical Carbon Dioxide as Fluidizing and Drying Medium. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 66, 315-320. DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2011.11.007

Wan, H. Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2012). Catalytic Hydroprocessing of p-Cresol: Metal, Solvent and Mass-Transfer Effects. Topics in Catalysis, 55(3), 129-139. DOI:10.1007/s11244-012-9782-6

Ramanathan, A. Subramaniam, B. Badloe, D. Hanefeld, U. & Maheswari, R. (2012). Direct Incorporation of Tungsten into Ultra-large-pore Three-dimensional Mesoporous Silicate Framework: W-KIT-6. Journal of Porous Materials, 19, 961-968. DOI:10.1007/s10934-011-9553-y

Ye, K. Freund, H. Xie, Z. Subramaniam, B. & Sundmacher, K. (2012). Prediction of Multicomponent Phase Behavior of CO2-Expanded Liquids using CEoS/GE Models and Comparison with Experimental Data. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 67, 41-52. DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2012.03.007

Subramaniam, B. & Akien, G. R. (2012). Sustainable Catalytic Reaction Engineering with Gas-Expanded Liquids. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 1(3), 336-341. DOI:

Bravo-Suárez, J. J., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2012). Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy and Temperature Programmed Techniques as Tools for Structural Characterization of Cu in CuMgAlOx Mixed Metal Oxides. Journal of Physical Chemistry C. J. Phys. Chem. C, 116(34), 18207–18221. DOI:

Fang, J. Jana, R. Tunge, J. A., & Subramaniam, B. (2011). Continuous Homogeneous Hydroformylation with Bulky Rhodium Catalyst Complexes Retained by Nano-filtration Membranes. Applied Catalysis A: General, 393, 294–301. DOI:10.1016/j.apcata.2010.12.011

Roy, D. Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2011). Cu-based Catalysts Show Low Temperature Activity for Glycerol Conversion to Lactic Acid. ACS Catalysis, 1(5), 548–551.

Roy, D. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2010). Aqueous Phase Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1, 2-Propanediol without External Hydrogen Addition. Catalysis Today, 156, 31-37. DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2010.01.007

Subramaniam, B. (2010). Exploiting Neoteric Solvents for Sustainable Catalysis and Reaction Engineering: Opportunities and Challenges. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49, 10218-10229. DOI:10.1021/ie101543a

Subramaniam, B. (2010). Gas-Expanded liquids for sustainable catalysis and novel materials. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 254, 1843-1853.

Torres, A. Roy, D. S., Subramaniam, B. & Chaudhari, R. V. (2010). Kinetic Modeling of Aqueous Phase Glycerol Hydrogenolysis in a Batch Slurry Reactor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49, 10826-10835. DOI:10.1021/ie100553b

Zuo, X. Niu, F. Snavely, W. K., Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2010). Liquid Phase Oxidation of p-Xylene to Terephthalic Acid at Medium-High Temperatures: Multiple Benefits of CO2-expanded Liquids. Green Chemistry, 12, 260-267. DOI:10.1039/B920262E

Ford, J. W., Chaudhari, R. V., & Subramaniam, B. (2010). Supercritical Deoxygenation of a Model Bio-oil Oxygenate. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49, 10852-10858. DOI:10.1021/ie1005492

Gong, K. Subramaniam, B. Ramachandran, P. A., & Hutchenson, K. W. (2010). Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) Studies of Isobutane, n-Butane and Propane Sorption in β- and Y-zeolites. AIChE Journal, 56(5), 1285–1296. DOI:10.1002/aic.12063

Lee, H. Ghanta, M. Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2010). Towards a CO2-Free Ethylene Oxide Process: Homogeneous Ethylene Epoxidation in Gas-Expanded Liquids. Chemical Engineering Science, 65, 128-134. DOI:10.1016/j.ces.2009.1002.1008

Subramaniam, B. & Ford, J. W. (2010). Supercritical Phase Catalysis – Heterogeneous. In . (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Catalysis, 2nd Edition. NY: John Wiley. DOI:10.1002/0471227617.eoc194

Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2009). Catalytic oxidation reactions in carbon dioxide expanded liquids using the green oxidants oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. In Gas-Expanded Liquids and Near-Critical Media: Green Chemistry and Engineering, ACS Symposium Series No. 1006, American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., pgs. 145-190.

Scurto, A. M., Hutchenson, K. W., & Subramaniam, B. (2009). Gas-Expanded Liquids (GXLs): Fundamentals and Applications. In Gas-Expanded Liquids and Near-Critical Media: Green Chemistry and Engineering, ACS Symposium Series No. 1006, American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., pgs. 3-40.

Nguyen, J. G., Johnson, C. A., Sharma, S. Subramaniam, B. & Borovik, A. S. (2009). Green Methods for Processing and Utilizing Metal Complexes. In Gas-Expanded Liquids and Near-Critical Media: Green Chemistry and Engineering, ACS Symposium Series No. 1006, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pgs. 274-289.

Wang, R. Cai, F. Jin, H. Xie, Z. Subramaniam, B. & Tunge, J. A. (2009). Hydroformylation in CO2-Expanded Media. In Gas-Expanded Liquids and Near-Critical Media: Green Chemistry and Engineering, ACS Symposium Series No. 1006, American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., pgs. 202-217.

Hutchenson, K. W., Scurto, A. M., & Subramaniam, B. (Eds.). (2009). Gas-Expanded Liquids and Near-Critical Media: Green Chemistry and Engineering. ACS Symposium Series No. 1006, American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C.

Gong, K. Shi, T. Ramachandran, P. A., Hutchenson, K. W., & Subramaniam, B. (2009). Adsorption/Desorption Studies of 224-Trimethylpentane in β-zeolite and Mesoporous Materials Using a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48, 9490-9497. DOI:10.1021/ie900334g

Tang, S. Scurto, A. M., & Subramaniam, B. (2009). Improved 1-Butene/isoButane Alkylation with Acidic Ionic Liquids and Tunable Acid/Ionic Liquid Mixtures. Journal of Catalysis, 268, 243-250.

Sarsani, R. & Subramaniam, B. (2009). Isobutane/butene alkylation on microporous and mesoporous solid acid catalysts: Probing the pore transport effects with liquid and near critical reaction media. Green Chemistry, 11, 102-108.

Johnson, C. Ottiger, S. Pini, R. Gorman, E. Nguyen, J. Munson, E. Mazzotti, M. Borovik, A. S., & Subramaniam, B. (2009). Near-Stoichiometric O2 Binding on Metal Centers in Co(salen) Nanoparticles. AIChE Journal, 55, 1040-1045 .

Xie, Z. Snavely, W. K., Scurto, A. M., & Subramaniam, B. (2009). Solubilities of CO and H2 in Neat and CO2-Expanded Hydroformylation Reaction Mixtures Containing 1-Octene and Nonanal up to 353 K and 9 MPa. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 54(5), 1633-1642.

Roby, K. F., Niu, F. Rajewski, R. A., Decedue, C. Subramaniam, B. & Terranova, P. F. (2008). A Syngeneic Mouse Model of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Effects of Nanoparticulate Palitaxel, Nanotax®., 622, 169-181.

Morbidelli, M. & Subramaniam, B. (2008). Arvind Varma: Educator, Researcher and Leader. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 47, 8957-8959.

Johnson, C. A., Long, B. Nguyen, J. G., Day, V. Borovik, A. S., Subramaniam, B. & Guzman, J. (2008). Correlation between Active Center Structure and Enhanced Dioxygen Binding in Co(salen) Nanoparticles: Characterization by In Situ Infrared, Raman, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112(32), 12272–12281.

Gong, K. Chafin, S. Pennybaker, K. Fahey, D. R., & Subramaniam, B. (2008). Economic and Environmental Impact Analyses of Solid-Acid Catalyzed Isoparaffin/Olefin Alkylation in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Industry and Engineering Chemistry Research, 47, 9072-9080.

Zuo, X. Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2008). Liquid phase oxidation of toluene and p-toluic acid under mild conditions: synergistic effects of cobalt, zirconium, ketones and carbon dioxide. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 47, 546-552.

Nguyen, J. Johnson, C. A., Subramaniam, B. & Borovik, A. S. (2008). Nitric Oxide Disproportionation at Mild Temperatures by a Nanoparticulate Cobalt(II) Complex. Chemistry of Materials, 20(19), 5939-5941.

Rajagopalan, B. Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2008). The catalytic efficacy of Co(salen)(AL) in O2 oxidation reactions in CO2-expanded solvent media: axial ligand dependence and substrate selectivity. Catalysis Letters, 123(1-2), 46-50.

Yin, G. Lee, H. Shi, P. Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2007). Homogeneous catalysis for selective and light olefin epoxidations. In Preprints - American Chemical Society, Division of Petroleum Chemistry, 52 (2), 246-249.

Arunajatesan, V. Subramaniam, B. Hutchenson, K. W., & Herkes, F. E. (2007). In situ FTIR Investigations of Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction Activity at Supercritical Conditions. Chemical Engineering Science, 62, 5062-5069.

Lee, H. Shi, T. Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2007). A Greener, Pressure Intensified Propylene Epoxidation Process with Facile Product Separation. Chemical Engineering Science, 62, 7282-7289.

Sarsani, R. Lyon, C. J., Hutchenson, K. W., Harmer, M. A., & Subramaniam, B. (2007). Continuous Acylation of Anisole by Acetic Anhydride in Mesoporous Solid Acid Catalysts: Reaction Media Effects on Catalyst Deactivation. Journal of Catalysis, 245, 184-190.

Fang, J. Jin, H. Ruddy, T. Pennybaker, K. Fahey, D. & Subramaniam, B. (2007). Economic and Environmental Impact Analyses of Catalytic Olefin Hydroformylation in CO2-Expanded Liquid (CXL) Media. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 46, 8687-8692.

Jessop, P. G., & Subramaniam, B. (2007). Gas-Expanded Liquids. Chemical Reviews, 107(6), 2666-2694.

Guha, D. Jin, H. Dudukovic, M. P., Ramachandran, P. A., & Subramaniam, B. (2007). Mass Transfer Effects during Homogeneous 1-Octene Hydroformylation in CO2-expanded Solvent: Modeling and Experiments. Chemical Engineering Science, 62, 4967-4975.

Niu, F. & Subramaniam, B. (2007). Particle Fluidization with Compressed CO2: Experiments and Theory. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 46, 3153-3156.

Houndonougbo, Y. Kuczera, K. Subramaniam, B. & Laird, B. B. (2007). Prediction of the Phase Equilibria and Transport Properties in Carbon-Dioxide Expanded Solvents by Molecular Simulation. Molecular Simulation, 33(9), 861-869.

Lee, H. Shi, T. Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2006). Selective Oxidation of Propylene to Propylene Oxide in CO2 Expanded Liquid System. In S. R. Schmidt (Ed.), Catalysis of Organic Reactions (pp. 447-451). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group LLC.

Niu, F. Roby, K. F., Rajewski, R. A., Decedue, C. & Subramaniam, B. (2006). Paclitaxel Nanoparticles: Production using Compressed CO2 as Antisolvent, Characterization and Animal Model Studies. In Polymeric Drug Delivery Volume II - Polymeric Matrices and Drug Particle Engineering, Chapter 17, ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 924, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

Sharma, S. Kerler, B. Subramaniam, B. & Borovik, A. S. (2006). Immobilized Metal Complexes in Porous Hosts: Catalytic Oxidation of Substituted Phenols in CO2 Media. Green Chemistry, 8, 972-977.

Jin, H. Ghosh, A. Tunge, J. A., & Subramaniam, B. (2006). Intensification of Catalytic Olefin Hydroformylation in CO2-expanded Media. AIChE Journal, 52(7), 2575-2591.

Houndonougbo, Y. Jin, H. Rajagopalan, B. Kuczera, K. Subramaniam, B. & Laird, B. B. (2006). Phase Equilibria in Carbon Dioxide Expanded Solvents: Experiment and Molecular Simulations. J. Physical Chemistry B, 110(26), 13195-13202.

Fusaro, F. Hänchen, M. Mazzotti, M. Muhrer, G. & Subramaniam, B. (2005). Dense Gas Antisolvent Precipitation: A Comparative Investigation of the GAS and PCA Techniques. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 44, 1502-1509.

Johnson, C. A., Sharma, S. Subramaniam, B. & Borovik, A. S. (2005). Nanoparticulate Metal Complexes Prepared With Compressed Carbon Dioxide: Correlation of Particle Morphology with Precursor Structure. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(27), 9698-9699.

Sarsani, R. Wang, Y. & Subramaniam, B. (2005). Toward Stable Solid Acid Catalysts for 1-Butene+Isobutane Alkylation: Investigations of Heteropolyacids in Dense CO2 Media. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 44(16), 6491 – 6495.

Fusaro, F. Hänchen, M. Mazzotti, M. Muhrer, G. & Subramaniam, B. (2004). Production of micro-particles with sc-CO2: Comparison of PCA and GAS precipitation techniques for different pharmaceutical compounds. In Proceedings of the 9h Meeting on Supercritical Fluids, Trieste, Italy, pp. 857-872, June.

Varma, A., Subramaniam, B., & Van deBussche, K. (Eds.). (2004). From Molecular to Product and Process Engineering. ISCRE 18 (18th International Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering) Proceedings Issue of Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 59, (22&23), 4661-5694.

Lyon, C. J., Sarsani, V. R., & Subramaniam, B. (2004). 1-Butene+Isobutane Reactions on Solid Acid Catalysts in Dense CO2-based Reaction Media: Experiments and Modeling. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 43, 4809-4814.

Kerler, B. Robinson, R. E., Borovik, A. S., & Subramaniam, B. (2004). Application of CO2-Expanded Solvents in Heterogeneous Catalysis: A Case Study. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 49(2), 91-98.

Wei, M. Musie, G. T., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2004). Autoxidation of 2,6-Ditertbutylphenol with Cobalt Schiff Base Catalysts by Oxygen in CO2-expanded Liquids. Green Chemistry, 6(8), 387-393.

Jin, H. & Subramaniam, B. (2004). Catalytic Hydroformylation of 1-Octene in CO2-expanded Solvent Media. Chemical Engineering Science, 59, 4887-4893.

Arunajatesan, V. Subramaniam, B. Hutchenson, K. W., & Herkes, F. E. (2003). Continuous Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds in Supercritical CO2. In . (Ed.), Catalysis of Organic Reactions (Vol. 89, pp. 461-475). Marcel Dekker, New York: Catalysis of Organic Reactions.

Jin, H. & Subramaniam, B. (2003). Exothermic Reactions in Supercritical Reaction media: Effects of Pressure-tunable Heat Capacity on Adiabatic Temperature Rise and Parametric Sensitivity. Chemical Engineering Science, 58, 1897-1901.

Rajagopalan, B. Wei, M. Musie, G. T., Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2003). Homogeneous Catalytic Epoxidation of Organic Substrates in CO2-Expanded Solvents in the Presence of Water Soluble Oxidants and Catalysts. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 42, 6505-6510.

Arunajatesan, V. Wilson, K. A., & Subramaniam, B. (2003). Pressure-tuning the Effective Diffusivity of Near-critical Reaction Mixtures in Mesoporous Catalysts. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 42, 2639-2643.

Lin, C. Muhrer, G. Mazzotti, M. & Subramaniam, B. (2003). Vapor-Liquid Mass Transfer During Gas Antisolvent Recrystallization: Modeling and Experiments. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 42, 2171-2182.

Subramaniam, B. (2002). Recent Advances in Catalysis Using Dense Carbon Dioxide as a Processing Medium. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on High Pressure Technology and Chemical Engineering, Venice, Italy, pp. 857-872, September.

Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2002). Use of dense-phase carbon Dioxide in catalysis. In ACS Symposium Series No. 809/CO2 Conversion and Utilization, Chapter 24, 364-386.

Subramaniam, B. (2002). Supercritical phase catalysis D. heterogeneous catalysis. In . (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Catalysis (Vol. 6, pp. 397-423). NY: John Wiley.

Wei, M. Musie, G. T., Busch, D. H., & Subramaniam, B. (2002). CO2-expanded Solvents: Unique and Versatile Media for Performing Homogeneous Catalytic Oxidations. J. American Chemical Society, 124(11), 2513-2517.

Subramaniam, B. Lyon, C. J., & Arunajatesan, V. (2002). Environmentally-Benign Multiphase Catalysis. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 37(4), 279-292.

Snavely, W. K., Subramaniam, B. Rajewski, R. A., & DeFelippis, M. R. (2002). Micronization of Insulin from Halogenated Alcohol Solution Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as an Antisolvent. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 91(9), 2026-2039.

Lyon, C. J., Subramaniam, B. & Pereira, C. J. (2001). Enhanced Isooctane Yields for 1-Butene/Isobutane Alkylation on SiO2-supported Nafion® in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. In J. J. Spivey, G. W. Roberts, & B. H. Davis (Eds.), Catalyst Deactivation 2001. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (Vol. 139, pp. 221-228). Elsevier.

Musie, G. Wei, M. Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2001). Autooxidation of Substituted Phenols Catalyzed by Cobalt Schiff base Complexes in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Inorganic Chemistry, 40(14), 3336-3441.

Musie, G. Wei, M. Subramaniam, B. & Busch, D. H. (2001). Catalytic Oxidations in Carbon Dioxide-Based Reaction Media, including Novel CO2-Expanded Phases. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 219-221, 789-820.

Subramaniam, B. (2001). Enhancing the Stability of Porous Catalysts with Supercritical Reaction Media. Applied Catalysis A: General, 212(1-2), 199-213.

Arunajatesan, V. Subramaniam, B. Hutchenson, K. W., & Herkes, F. E. (2001). Fixed-Bed Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Chemical Engineering Science, 56(4), 1363-1369.

Subramaniam, B. (2000). Continuous Heterogeneous Catalysis with Supercritical Media: Fundamentals and Reaction engineering Aspects. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, Atlanta, GA, pp. 103-121, April.

Subramaniam, B. Saim, S. Rajewski, R. A., & Stella, V. J. (2000). Green Process Concepts for the Pharmaceutical Industry. In Green Engineering, ACS Symposium Series 766, Washington, D.C., pgs. 96-110.

Subramaniam, B. Arunajatesan, V. & Lyon, C. (1999). Coking of Solid Acid Catalysts and Strategies for Maintaining Their Activity. In B. Delmon & G. F. Froment (Eds.), Catalyst Deactivation 1999, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal. (Vol. 126, pp. 63-70). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Subramaniam, B. (1999). Exploiting Supercritical Reaction Media in Catalytic Fuels Processing. In Energia, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Publication, Vol. 10, No. 3.

Subramaniam, B. & Clark, M. C. (1999). Exploiting Supercritical Reaction Media in Heterogeneous Fluid-Solid Catalytic Reactions. In Proceedings of the Sixth Meeting on Supercritical Fluids: Chemistry and Materials, Nottingham, U.K., pp. 259-264, April.

Clark, M. C., & Subramaniam, B. (1999). Intrinsic Kinetics of Pt/γ-Al2O3 Catalyzed 1-Hexene Isomerization at Supercritical Conditions. AIChE Journal, 45, 1559-65.

Clark, M. C., & Subramaniam, B. (1998). Enhanced Alkylation Production Activity During Fixed-Bed Supercritical 1-Butene/Isobutane Alkylation on Solid Acid Catalysts with Carbon Dioxide as Diluent. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 37, 1243-50.

Bochniak, D. J., & Subramaniam, B. (1998). Fischer-Trøpsch Synthesis in Near-Critical n-Hexane: Pressure-Tuning Effects. AIChE Journal, 44, 1889-96.

Snyder, J. D., & Subramaniam, B. (1998). Numerical Simulation of a Reverse-Flow NOx-SCR Reactor with Side-stream Ammonia Addition. Chemical Engineering Science, 53, 727-734.

Snavely, W. K., & Subramaniam, B. (1998). TCD Analysis of Hydrogen Using Helium Carrier Gas: Effect of Packed Column Resolution on Linearity. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 36, 191-97.

Snavely, W. K., & Subramaniam, B. (1997). Automatic Gas Chromatographic Retention Time Matching Applied to Synthetic Petroleum (Fischer-Trøpsch) Products, using HP Chemstation Software. Journal of Chromatography A, 791, 197-202.

Snavely, W. K., & Subramaniam, B. (1997). On-line Gas Chromatography of Fischer-Tropsch Products Formed in a Supercritical Reaction Medium. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 36, 4413-4420.

Subramaniam, B. Rajewski, R. A., & Snavely, W. K. (1997). Pharmaceutical Processing with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 86, 885-890.

Subramaniam, B. & Ginosar, D. M. (1996). Enhancing the Activity of Solid Acid Catalysts with Supercritical Reaction Media: Experiments and Theory. In . Ph. Rudolf von Rohr & . Ch. Trepp (Eds.), High Pressure Chemical Engineering (pp. 1-7). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Clark, M. C., & Subramaniam, B. (1996). 1-Hexene Isomerization on a Pt/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst: The Dramatic Effects of Feed Peroxides on Catalyst Activity. Chemical Engineering Science, 51, 2369-2377.

Subramaniam, B. & Desatnik, N. (1996). A Physicochemical Basis for Shape Nonuniformities in Selective Epitaxial Growth. Chemical Engineering Communications, 140, 131-138.

Snyder, J. D., & Subramaniam, B. (1996). Reverse Flow Operation of Packed-beds with Discrete Power Introduction: Experiments and Theory. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 74, 743-50.

Subramaniam, B. & Jooma, A. (1995). Mitigation of Coke Buildup in Porous Catalysts with Supercritical Reaction Media. In Innovation on Supercritical Fluids, Chapter 16, ACS Symposium Washington, D.C., Series No. 608, pgs. 246-256.

McCoy, B. J., & Subramaniam, B. (1995). Continuous-Mixture Kinetics of Coke Formation from Olefinic Oligomers. AIChE Journal, 41, 317-323.

Ginosar, D. M., & Subramaniam, B. (1995). Olefinic Oligomer and Cosolvent Effects on the Coking and Activity of a Reforming Catalyst in Supercritical Reaction Mixtures. Journal of Catalysis, 152, 31-41.

Ginosar, D. M., & Subramaniam, B. (1994). Coking and Activity of a Reforming Catalyst in Nearcritical and Dense Supercritical Reaction Mixtures. In B. Delmon & G. F. Froment (Eds.), Catalyst Deactivation 1994: Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (Vol. 88, pp. 327-334). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Subramaniam, B. (1994). Reaction Engineering Considerations of Catalytic Hydrocarbon Processing in Supercritical Media. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, Strasbourg, France, pp. 103-108, Vol. 3, Oct.

Snyder, J. D., & Subramaniam, B. (1994). A Novel Reverse Flow Strategy for the Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene in a Packed-Bed Reactor. Chemical Engineering Science, 49, 5585-5601.

Subramaniam, B. & McCoy, B. J. (1994). Catalyst Activity Maintenance or Decay: A Model for Formation and Desorption of Coke. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 33, 504-508.

Subramaniam, B. & Ginosar, D. M. (1993). Near-critical Processing of Fluid/Solid Catalytic Systems. In Proceedings of the Indo-US Symposium on Multiphase Reactions and Reactors, Chemcon' 93, Bombay, India, Dec.

Desatnik, N. Subramaniam, B. & Thompson, B. E. (1993). A Nonisothermal Film Model for Masstransfer-limited Selective Epitaxial Growth of Silicon on Patterned Surfaces. Journal of Crystal Growth, 131, 589-97.

Snyder, J. D., & Subramaniam, B. (1993). Numerical Simulation of a Periodic Flow Reversal Reactor for Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation. Chemical Engineering Science, 48, 4051-64 .

Saim, S. & Subramaniam, B. (1993). Prediction of Critical Properties of 1-Hexene/Hexene Isomers/Carbon Dioxide Mixtures with a Cubic EOS: Sensitivity to Mixture Composition and to the Path of Approach to Critical Points. Chemical Engineering Communications, 125, 121-37.

Baptist-Nguyen, S. & Subramaniam, B. (1992). Coking and Activity of Porous Catalysts in Supercritical Reaction Media. AIChE Journal, 38, 1027-37.

Saim, S. Ginosar, D. M., & Subramaniam, B. (1991). In Situ Extraction of Coke Compounds from Porous Catalysts with Supercritical Reaction Media: A Promising Technique for Investigating Chemistry of Coke Formation. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids. 157-60. Boston, MA.

Ginosar, D. M., & Subramaniam, B. (1991). Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions at Supercritical Conditions. In Proceedings of the International Biotechnology Symposium, CHEMCON' 91, Madras, India.

Evans, E. D., & Subramaniam, B. (1991). Extension of One-Dimensional Film Model for Chemical Vapor Deposition to Predict Selective Epitaxial Growth Rates. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 138, 589-94.

Saim, S. & Subramaniam, B. (1991). Isomerization of 1-hexene on a Pt/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst: Reaction Mixture Density and Temperature Effects on Catalyst Effectiveness Factor, Coke Laydown and Catalyst Micromeritics. Journal of Catalysis, 131, 445-56.

Subramaniam, B. & Claudius, J. S. (1990). Effect of Drug Administration Mode on Drug Distribution in a Tumor Slab: A Finite Fourier Transform Analysis. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 143, 55-76.

Saim, S. & Subramaniam, B. (1990). Isomerization of 1-hexene on a Pt/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst at Subcritical and Supercritical Conditions: Temperature and Pressure Effects on Catalyst Activity. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 3, 214-21.

Saim, S. Ginosar, D. M., & Subramaniam, B. (1989). Phase and Reaction Equilibria Considerations in the Rational Evaluation of Supercritical Fluid Solvent Media. In Supercritical Science and Technology, ACS Symposium Series No. 406, 301-16.

Saim, S. & Subramaniam, B. (1988). Chemical Reaction Equilibrium at Supercritical Conditions. Chemical Engineering Science, 43, 1837-41.

Subramaniam, B. & McHugh, M. A. (1987). Response to Comments on 'Reactions in Supercritical Fluids - A Review'. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 26, 1267.

Subramaniam, B. & McHugh, M. A. (1986). Reactions in Supercritical Fluids - A Review. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 25, 1-12.

Subramaniam, B. & Varma, A. (1985). Reaction Kinetics on a Commercial Three-Way Catalyst: The CO-NO-O2-H2O System. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development, 24, 512-516.

Subramaniam, B. & Varma, A. (1984). Reactions of CO, NO, O2 and H2O on Three-Way and Pt/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts. In L. K. Doraiswamy & R. A. Mashelkar (Eds.), Frontiers in Chemical Reaction Engineering (Vol. 1, pp. 231-240). Wiley Eastern Ltd.

Subramaniam, B. & Varma, A. (1983). Complex Dynamic Behavior in the Case of CO-NO-O2-H2O Reaction System on Pt/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst in a Tubular Reactor. Chemical Engineering Communications, 21, 221-233.

Subramaniam, B. & Varma, A. (1983). Simultaneous Reactions of CO, NO, O2 and NH3 on Pt/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst in a Tubular Reactor. Chemical Engineering Communications, 20, 81-91.


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